Week #1

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Author:
LT24
ID:
5337
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Week #1
Updated:
2010-01-28 18:01:49
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Evolution Midterm 1
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Description:
Human evolution, Origin of disease, Breast cancer
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  1. 3 main human livelstyles
    • Hunther/gatherer
    • Agricultural
    • Industrial
  2. Darwinian medicine/Evolutionary medicine
    Explanations of disease in the context of human natural selection and human environmental transitions
  3. Theory of human evolution
    Hunter gatherer socieites > modern humans migrate from origins in East Africa to other places > agricultural societies > industrial information
  4. Evolution of fatal diseases
    • 1900 - Frequent cause of death: pneumonia/influenza, tuberculosis, diarrhea/enteritis
    • Caused by communicable bacterial or viral diseases
    • Since 1940s - cardiovascular disease, cancer, degenerative diseases
    • Caused by longer lifespans
  5. Natural selection
    • Any variation will be naturally selected if it increases the probability that an organism will...
    • 1. Survive throughout entire reproductive period
    • 2. Produce many progeny
    • 3. Protect these progeny so that they survive to reproduce
    • Selection principally acts at the levels of genes
  6. How do you determine human origins?
    Analyze mutational changes during human evolution
  7. What types of effects can mutations have?
    • Negative
    • Positive
    • Neutral
  8. Haplotype
    • Common way of labeling mutational differences b/w humans
    • General term denoting genetic constitution of individual chromosome
    • Specific type: SNPs
  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP/snips)
    • On a single chromatid that can be associated with human characteristics
    • Wikidpedia: DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide — A, T, C, or G — in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a species
  10. Genetic drift
    • Random chance changes frequency if specific allele or gene throughout entire gene pool
    • Nothing to do with selective forces
  11. PCR requirements
    • Thermostable DNA polymerase
    • Sequence information enabling synthesis of specific oligo
  12. Cloning requirements
    • Suitable host cell
    • Replicon
    • Means of attaching foreign DNA to replicon and transferring to host cell
  13. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) steps
    • 1. Denature dsDNA by heating
    • 2. Allow primers to anneal
    • 3. DNA synthesis
  14. How do you sequence DNA?
    Chain termination method
  15. Chain termination requirements
    • Chain terminating nucleotides lack 3' OH groups
    • Have fluorescent labels
  16. Chain termination data
    • The peaks are fluorescence intensities at different times of passage through a sequencing gel
  17. 454 sequencing
    • Highly parallel
    • 1. Dilute DNA sequence so that only one DNA sequence will attach to a single bead
    • 2. Amplify the fragments on the surface of the beads – each bead is a PCR reaction
    • 3. Beads put on a picotiter plate
    • 4. Apply pyrosequencing – each time you pass a solution over the plate to fill the well with a T nucleotide and when it gets incorporated there will be a flash of light (repeat with the other nucleotides)
  18. Approximately how many years ago did humans and chips share a common ancestor?
    ~6 million
  19. Tracing MALE lineages
    • Use Y chromosome
    • Only 1 Y chromosome = no recombination
    • Haplotype markers passed unchanged from father to son
    • High rate of mutation b/c large junk DNA
  20. Tracing FEMALE lineages
    • Use mitochondrial DNA
    • Maternally inherited only
    • Male sperm mitochondria not passed to offspring
  21. Geographical distributions of polymorphisms
    • Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA not identical
    • Due to males moving less than females
  22. Evidence that modern human diaspora came from a single source
    • Skeletal paleontology
    • Tool evolution
    • Language evolution
  23. Health and disease in hunter-gatherer societies
    High death rates (but same life-span as industrial)
  24. Causes of death in hunter-gatherer societies
    • Accident
    • Food shortage
    • Predation
    • Homicide
    • Parasitic disease
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Childbirth
  25. Diseases in hunter/gatherer societies
    • Non-communicable dieseases rare
    • Populations not large enough or dense enough to maintain and spread infectious diseases
    • Irregular contact with other bands
  26. Fertile crescent in Middle Eastern Eurasia
    Earliest origin of highly organized agriculture and animal domestication
  27. Hunter/gatherer vs Agricultural diets
    • Hunter energy sources
    • 65% lean game, wild fowl, eggs, fish, shellfish
    • 35% fruits, vegs, nuts
    • American energy sources
    • 55% cereal, grains, milk, sugar, alcohol
    • 28% meat, poulty, eggs, fish, shellfis
    • 17% fruits, vegs, nuts
  28. How modern humans live in different environment
    • Activity levels
    • Diet
    • Exposure to infectious microbes
  29. Agricultural lifestyle has led to...
    • Exposure to animal viruses
    • Diseases enhanced by carb diets
    • High transmission of human-human disease pathogens
  30. Measles
    Cattle
  31. AIDs
    Primates
  32. Thyphoid fever
    Birds
  33. Pertusis
    Pigs
  34. Smallpox
    Cattle
  35. Stomach ulcers
    Sheep
  36. Tuberculosis
    Goats
  37. Influenza
    Pigs, birds, dog
  38. First animal domesticated
    • Sheep
    • ~11,000 years ago
  39. Diseases in indrustrial environments influenced by...
    • Sedentary lifestyles
    • Longer average lifespans
    • Abudant food
    • Highly processed food
    • Exposure to synthetic chemicals
    • Increase in medical technology
  40. Diseases common in agricultural/industrial (absent from hunter/gatherer)
    • Diabetes
    • Myopia
    • Cancer
    • Heart disease
  41. Scientific evidence
    • All variables controlled except single variable being tested
    • Evidence must reproducible by others
    • Someone else reaching the same conclusion using different evidence

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