psych test human development

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psych test human development
2010-12-05 03:54:45

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  1. human development
    study of both change and continuity in the indvidial across the life span (process begins before birth)
  2. three stages of prenatal development
    germinal stage; embryonic stage; fetal stage
  3. germinal stage
    begins at conception and lasts for two weeks
  4. embryonic stage
    • formation of major organs (nervous ystem, heart, ears, etc.)
    • weeks 2 to 8
  5. fetal stage
    organs continue to grow and mature while fetus rapidly increases in size
  6. zygote
    fertilized egg forms this at conception
  7. blastocyst (travels down fallopian tube and attaches to the uterine wall)
    by day 7, a zygote is called
  8. pbrain (still gorwing rapidly at birth)
    first major organ to develo
  9. yneural migration: neurons move from one part of the brain to their more permanent home
    what happens from months 3-5 of pregnanc
  10. teratogens such as prenatal exposure to certian toxins or viruses
    factors that inerfere with neural migration
  11. prenatal programming
    the process by which events in the womb alter the development of physical and psychological health
  12. teratogens
    substances that can disrupt normal development and cause long-term effects (smoking, alcoohl)
  13. early motor development
    changes in physical movement and body control ( early in infancy babies start to show intentional movements)
  14. early sensory development
    hearing is almost fully develop at birth but vision is now only about 20-600; visual sharpness or acuity continues to improve during infancy
  15. black and white edges and patterns; 6 months of age
    news are best able to see _____; color vision develops by ____
  16. critical period
    specific period in biological development when individuals are most receptive to a particular kind of input from the environmental (such as visual stimulation and language learning)
  17. visual cliff
    a tests of depth perception in babies who have learned to crawl
  18. early cognitive development
    with growth comes cognitive development-advances in abiltiy to think, reason, remember, learn, solve problems
  19. ZPD
    level at which a child can almost but not fully comprehend/perform a task on his/her own
  20. sensorimotor stage
    Piaget's first stage of cognitive development (ages 0-2); infants learn about the world by using their sens and by moving their bodies in it
  21. object permanence
    ability to realize that objects still exist when they are not being sensed
  22. 9 months of age
    object permanence (Piaget argues) appears around ___
  23. preoperational stage
    (ages 2-5) begins which emergence of symbolic thought, or the use of symbols such as words or letters to represent ideas or objects
  24. animistic thinking
    idea that inanimate objects are alive
  25. egocentrism
    tendency to view the world from one's own perspective and not see things from another's
  26. conservation
    ability to recognize that when objects change shape or size, the overall amount stays the same
  27. concrete operational stage
    (6-11); children can perfom mental operatiosn (real or concrete, objects and events) but they still have trouble with abstract ideas and reasoning

    reversing evetns is one type of operation a child masters in this stage
  28. formal operational stage
    formal logic becomes possible (adolescents develop scientific reasoning and hypothesis-testing skills)
  29. theory of mind
    knowledge and ideas of how other people's minds work; involves knowing and understanding what other ppl are thinking, wanting and feeling.
  30. false-belief task
    recognize that others can have beliefs about the world that are wrong.
  31. Lawrence Kohlberg (did for moral reasoning what Piaget did for cognitive development)

    found that moral raesoning moves form being focused on the self to on others
    who had development of moral reasoning
  32. preconventional level
    the first level in which moral reasoning involves avoiding punishment or maximizing rewards
  33. conventional leve
    person values caring, trust, and relationships as well as social order and lawfulness
  34. postconventional level
    person acknowledges both the norm and the law, but argues that there are universal moral rules that may trump unjust or immoral local rules
  35. imprinting
    rapid and innate learning of the characteristics of a caregiver very soon after birth
  36. attachment
    strong emotional connection that develops early in life to keep infants close to their caregivers
  37. John Bowlby
    who defined separation anxiety
  38. separation anxiety
    distress reaction shown by babies when they are separated from their primary caregiver (shown around 9 months)
  39. Mary ainsworth
    developed a technique for measuring the attachment of infant and caregiver
  40. strange situation task
    • 20-minute labortary seesion in which a mother and her 12-month infant are alone in a playroom. Then a stranger comes and interacts with infant. Mother then leaves for 2 periods.
    • 1st period: infant is left alone with the stranger
    • 2nd period: infant is left completely alone
  41. adapting to the environment
    children are most concerned with
  42. schemas
    ease adaption (developed through experience, our world)
  43. assimialtion
    fitting new experiences into existing schemas
  44. accommodation
    developing new schemas
  45. secure attachment
    infants are happy and intiate when mother returns
  46. anxious resistant attachment
    infants are uncertain
  47. avoidant attachment
    infants stay calm when mother leaves, accept stranger and when mother returns, ignore the mother
  48. social referencing (can make sens of their mother's emotional facial expressions); what age?
    ability to make use of social information from another person (1 year old)
  49. emotional competence
    ability to control emotions and to know when it is appropriate to express certain emotions
  50. adolescence
    transition period b/w childhood and adulthood (11-18)
  51. puberty
    period when sexual maturation begins (Beginning of adolesence)
  52. 11; 13
    girls reach puberty at ___; boys ____
  53. sex hormones released
    beginning of puberty stems from ___
  54. menarche
    onset of menstruation
  55. spermarche (first ejaculation)
    readiness to reproduce
  56. ability to think and solve problems systematically; trial and erro method
    extent to which ppl develop reasoning skills is ___ rather than ____
  57. frontal lobes
    last part of the brain to fully develop
  58. personal fable
    egocentrism normally exhibited during early adolescence, and it is characterized by an over-differentiating of one's experiences and feelings from others to the point of assuming those experiences are unique from those of others.
  59. imaginary audiecne
    adolescents believe that everyone is looking at them all the time
  60. emergence of sexual interest and sexual relationships
    most obvious change in adolescent social development
  61. middle adulthood
    ppl experience loss of vision or hearing and sensitiveity to taste and smell by ____
  62. older brain does not change as rapidly as younger brain; but new experiences and mastery of skills still continue to give rise to neural branching
    cognitive and brain development in adulthood
  63. dementia
    loss of cognitive functions including memory problems and difficulty reasoning, solving problems making decisions and using language
  64. alzheimer's disease
    degenerative disease marked by progressive cognitive decline and characterized by a collection of symptoms, including confusion, memory loss, mood swings, and eventual loss of physical functions
  65. Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
    as people age and become more aware of their limited time, they become more selective about where they expend their resources in personal and emotional relationships
  66. trust vs mistrust; feeding; infant forms a first loving relationship with caregiver (or mistrust)
    EE: 0-1
  67. autonomy vs shame/doubt; toilet training;development physical skills. childl earns control but may develop shame and doubt
    toilet training
  68. initiative vs guilt; independence; continues to become more assertive but may be too forceful (guilty feelings)
  69. industry vs inferiority; school; learns new skills or risks a sense of inferiority
  70. identity vs role confusion; peer relationships; sense of own identity or confusion of role in lfie
  71. intimacy vs isolation; love relationships; intiamte relationships or becomes isolated from meaningful ones
  72. generativity vs stagnation; parenting; adult must find some way to satisfy and support next-generation; or becomes self-centered
  73. ego integrity vs despair; reflection and acceptance of one's life; culmination is a sense of fulfillment or despairs over ever being able to find meaning in life
    65- LUL