Biology

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Author:
onlyhope
ID:
5343
Filename:
Biology
Updated:
2010-01-27 16:54:38
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Chapter 3 A
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Cell Biology Chapter 3
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  1. Organic Chemistry
    • most Organic molecules contain carbon
    • Abundant in living organisms
    • Macromolecules are large, complex organic molecules
  2. Carbon
    • Carbon has 4 electrons in its outer shell
    • Needs 4 more electrons to fill the shell
    • Make up to 4 bonds
    • --Usually single or double bonds
    • Carbon can form nonpolar and polar bonds (face each other)
    • --nonpolar bonds: poorly water soluble
    • --polar bonds: more water soluble
    • * nonpolar and polar are different at how they come together/apart
  3. Functional Groups
    • Groups of atoms with special chemical features that are functionally important
    • Each type of functional group exhibits the same properties in all molecules in which it occurs
    • Amino - R-NH2 - amino acids (proteins)
    • Carboxyl - R-O=C-OH - Amino Acids, fatty acids
    • Hydroxyl - R-OH - Steroids, alcohol, carbohydrates, some amino acids
    • Phosphate - R-O-S(=O2)-O_ - Nucleic acid, ATP attached to amino acid
    • Sulfate - R-O-S(=O2)-O_ - May be attached to carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids
  4. Isomers
    • Two structures with an identical molecular formula but different structures and characteristics
    • Structural isomers: contain the same atoms but in different bonding relationships
    • Stereoisomers: identical bonding relationships, but the spatial positioning of the atoms differs in the two isomers
    • Geometric: cis, trans
    • Enantiomers: mirror isomer
  5. 4 major types of organic molecules and macromolecules
    • 1.Carbohydrates
    • 2.Lipids
    • 3.Proteins
    • 4.Nucleic acids
  6. Carbohydrates
    • Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
    • --Cn(H2O)n
    • Most of the carbon atoms in a carbohydrate are linked to a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group
    • Soluble in water
    • NO nitrogen
    • --C., H., O.
  7. Monosaccharides
    • Simplest sugars: Most common are 5 or 6 carbons
    • --Pentoses- ribose (C5H10O5)
    • --Deoxyribose (C5H10O4)
    • --Hexose- glucose (C6H12O6)
    • Different ways to depict structures
    • --Ring or linear
  8. Glucose isomers
    • Structural isomers - different arrangement of same elements
    • Glucose and galactose
    • --B-D and B-L..
  9. Disaccharides
    • Carbohydrates composed of two monosaccharides
    • Joined by dehydration or condensation reaction
    • Broken apart by hydrolysis
    • Examples -sucrose, maltose, lactose
  10. Polysaccharides
    • Many monosaccharides linked together to form long polymers
    • --Energy storage – starch, glycogen
    • --Structural role – cellulose, chitin, glycosaminoglycans
  11. Lipids
    • Composed predominantly of hydrogen and carbon atoms
    • Feature:nonpolar and therefore very insoluble in water
    • --Carbon and Hydrogen
    • NO Oxygen
  12. Fats
    • 1.Mixture of triglycerides (different forms of lipids)
    • --Also known as triacylglycerols
    • 2.Formed by bonding glycerol to three fatty acids
    • 3.Joined by dehydration or condensation reaction
    • 4.Broken apart by hydrolysis
  13. Triglyceride (fat)
    • Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids =Dehydration= Tryglyceride + 3 H2O
    • The new bond created is called an ESTER bond

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