Joint Structure

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Anonymous
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53499
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Joint Structure
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2010-12-05 15:41:48
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Joint Structure
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Joint Structure
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  1. Another name for fibrous joint
    synarthrodial
  2. Another name for cartilaginous
    amphiarthrodial
  3. Another name for synovial
    diarthrodial
  4. Fibrous Joints (synarthrodial)
    Junction connected by dense irregular CT
  5. Junction connected by
    dense irregular CT
  6. Give examples of syndesmoses joints
    • Distal Tibiofiublar joint
    • Interosseous membranes
    • Which include sutures gomphosis
  7. What is the function of fibrous joints
    • Binds
    • .. Force transmission
    • .. Minimal joint motion
  8. Cartilaginous Joints are formed by
    Junction formed by fibrocartilage &/or hyaline cartilage
  9. Examples of cartilaginous joints are
    • Symphyses –hyaline layer plus
    • fibrocartilage
    • .. Synchondroses-hyaline
    • .. First rib and sternum
  10. The function of cartigainous Joints are (3 things)
    • Force transmission & absorbtion
    • .. Restrains movement
    • .. Provides stability and a small amount of mobility
  11. Synovial Joints have 5 components
    • 1. Synovial fluid forms a filmaround joint surfaces
    • 2. Articular cartilage-hyaline3. Joint capsule-2 layers
    • 4. Synovial membrane lining thejoint cavity which producessynovial fluid for jointlubrication and nutrition
    • 5. Fibrous capsule which isreinforced by capsularligamentsō€‚¾ Joint space which may ormay not be divided by afibrous intraarticular disc or meniscus
  12. Synovial joints also have
    blood vessels and sensory nerves
  13. Someimes presents
    • Intraarticular discs ormenisci
    • Labrum of fibrocartilage
    • Fat Pads
    • Synovial Plicae
  14. Name the different types of synovial joints, give examples also
    Plane, hinge, pivot, ellipsoid,condyloid saddle, ball and socket
  15. Mobility and stability determined by
    • Articular surfaces
    • .. Joint capsule and ligaments
    • .. Periarticular soft tissue
  16. Function of bone
    • Protection
    • .. Structure
    • .. Muscle attachment sites
    • for movement
    • .. Mineral storage
    • .. Blood cell production
    • .. Highly vascularized
    • .. Sensory Innervation
  17. Cortical (Compact) Bone is formed by
    Forms the outer shell. Has a dense structure similar to ivory.
  18. Cancellous (Trabecular) Bone
    Within the cortical bone, is composed of thin plates in a loose mesh structure filled with red marrow.
  19. cell is the bone
    • Osteoblasts
    • .. Osteocytes
    • .. Osteoclasts
  20. Organic extracellular Matrix includes
    Collagen and Proteoglycans
  21. Proteoglycans
    Cementing substance between layers of crystallized collagen.
  22. Inorganic Materials
    Mineral salts such as calcium and phosphate.
  23. Haversian System is another name for
    (Osteon)
  24. Haversian System (Osteon) do what?
    • organizes the collagen fibers –Type I into spirals
    • and
    • The layers of osteonsfrom a rigid support system
  25. Wolff's Law
    Bone remodels itself to meet the imposed demands
  26. In bone mineral conten determines the ______?
    mechanics
  27. Body is best at handling ________ forces?
    Followed by
    • compressive
    • then
    • tension and shear
  28. Bone can withstand higher__________ forces with less strain than thensile forces
    compressive
  29. Tension force can cuase failure from
    cementline debonding (avulsion fx)
  30. Femoral condyle fracture is an example of what type of force
    Failure in Shearing
  31. boot top fracture is an example of a
    bending fracture
  32. Rate of force application
    If the tissue is loaded rapidly more
    energy (force or stress) is required to deform the tissue (bone)
  33. Aging causes a reduction in the amount of ________ and causes decrease thickness in the _________
    • cancellous bone
    • cortical bone
  34. What happens if the bone is immobolizated
    • Bone formation
    • .. Bone resorbtion
    • .. Collagen synthesis
  35. Another name for hyaline cartilage
    articular cartilage
  36. Where is hyaline cartilage found
    found in thenose, larynx, trachea, bronchi& articular surfaces. Also as template for long bone growth
  37. Where is elastic cartilage found
    • pinna of ear
    • epiglottis and trachea
  38. Where is fibrocartilage found
    • Intervertebral discs,
    • pubic symphysis
    • & all articular discs.
  39. What are the function of articular cartilage
    • Load distribution
    • .. Lower friction between joint surfaces
    • .. Lubrication
  40. What is the composiiton of articular cartilage (3 things)
    Chrondocytes, collagen (type II), and extracellular matrix.
  41. Chrondocytes are made up of ___% of tissue volume
    10
  42. What are the gernal characteristics of articular cartilage
    • .. Avascular; aneural
    • .. Cell nourishment through osmosis & diffusion
    • .. Like bone, continually remodels
  43. Articular cartilage structure has four layers. What are they
    perichondrium, superficial layer, middle layer, deep layer
  44. Biomechanical Behavior of Articular Cartilage Display viscoelestic properties
    • .. Time dependent properties
    • .. Rate dependent properties
  45. With rapid loading _____ force is required to deform tissue
    more
  46. Function of fibrocartilage (menisci)
    • .. Fill dead space
    • .. Shock absorption
    • .. Enhance joint congruity
    • .. Control joint motion
    • .. Enhance joint motion
    • .. Weight distribution
    • .. Protect joint margins
  47. Composition of fibrocartilage
    • .. Similar to hyaline cartilage & fibrous
    • connective tissue
    • .. Less GAG’s & water
    • .. Type I collagen
    • .. Chondrocytes develop from fibroblasts
    • .. Generally avascular; aneural
  48. Type I collagen fiber content resist
    tension
  49. Joint capsules have two layers. What are they?
    Fibrous Layer and synovial layer
  50. What are the characteristics of the fibrous layer
    • .. Has ligaments
    • .. Provides support
    • .. Protects synovium
    • .. Holds bones in opposition
    • .. Many nerves, few blood
    • vessels
  51. What characteristics do synovial layers have
    • .. Two layers
    • .. Creates synovial cavity
    • .. Produces synovial fluid and nutrient/waste regulation
    • .. Few nerves, many blood vessels
  52. Fibrous layer of joint capsuel is (2) things
    pooly vascularized and densely innervated
  53. Synovial layer
    Richly vascularized and poorly innervated
  54. During normal daily activities a tendon is
    subjected to
    1/4 of its ultimate stress
  55. What happens to tendons and ligament if they are immobolized
    • .. Decreased
    • .. Collagen
    • .. Crosslinking
    • .. Tensile strength
    • .. (50%) loss in eight weeks
  56. What happens to capsule if they are immobolized
    • .. Disordered collagen fibrils
    • .. Abnormal crosslinking
    • .. Adhesions form
  57. What is the functions of synovial fluid
    • .. Lubrication
    • .. Nourishment
    • .. Stabilization
  58. When the bony components of
    a joint are
    .. moving rapidly the viscosity of
    th i l fl id d d
    ..The viscosity varies inversely with the
    joint velocity or rate of shear
    the synovial fluid d
    ecreases and

    provides less resistance to

    motion
  59. d

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