Anatomy - Unit 9

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andreabyerly
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53504
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Anatomy - Unit 9
Updated:
2010-12-06 10:42:13
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Anatomy Unit
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Unit 9
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  1. Functions of muscles
    • 1. MOVEMENT
    • 2. STABILITY
    • 3. CONTROL OF OPENINGS
    • 4. HEAT PRODUCTION
    • 5. COMMUNICATION
  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSCLES
    • 1. EXCITABILITY
    • 2. CONDUCTIVITY
    • 3. CONTRACTILITY
    • 4. EXTENSIBILITY
    • 5. ELASTICITY
  3. EXCITABILITY
    to create action potential
  4. CONDUCTIVITY
    to conduct an action potential. So it can spread through the cell
  5. CONTRACTILITY
    can shorten/contract
  6. EXTENSIBILITY
    ability to stretch between contractions
  7. ELASTICITY
    tendency to return to the original length when tension is released.
  8. 3 TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUES
    • 1. SKELETAL MUSCLE
    • 2. SMOOTH MUSCLE
    • 3. CARDIAC MUSCLE
  9. SKELETAL MUSCLE
    • Attached to bones
    • Striated appearance
    • Voluntary control
    • Results in bodymovement/ balance
  10. SMOOTH MUSCLE
    • Blood vessels, glands, airways, digestive/ urinary/ reproductive tracts
    • Non-striated
    • Involuntary
    • Results in internal organ movement & glandular
    • secretions
  11. CARDIAC MUSCLE
    • Only in the heart
    • Less pronounced striations; Intercalated discs
    • Involuntary
  12. MOTOR UNIT
    1 somatic efferent neuron + many muscle fibers
  13. How muscles move:
    Action Potential travels down neuron → terminal/ synaptic knob → opens voltage-gated CA++ channels → Ca++ enters → exocytosis of synaptic vesicles that contain ACh → ACh released into synaptic cleft → ACh binds Rc's on muscle cell→ opens Na+ channels → Na+ in: depolarization (local potential) to threshold → Action Potential on sarcolemma [voltage-gate Na+ & K+ channels] → AP travels into T-Tubules → Activates SR to release Ca++ → Ca++ bind troponin → tropomyosin moves → Actin & myosin can bind Myosin head takes ATP → Myosin head goes into high energy position. ADP + Pi (Tri- to Di- + one p) → Myosin (hi energy) binds Actin → Myosin releases ADP & Pi and returns to low energy position. called “Power Stroke”→ Sarcomere shortening /muscle contraction → Myosin binds ATP → releases Actin
  14. ATP needed for:
    • 1. Creating High-Energy position of myosin cross-bridge so it can bind actin
    • 2. Releasing myosin cross-bridge from the actin once the power stroke has occurred
    • 3. Pumping Ca++ back into the SR once contraction is over
  15. AEROBIC METABOLISM
    • needs oxygen and glucose
    • high activityEndurance
    • Most efficient & highest yield of ATP: one cycle gives 36 ATP.
  16. ANAEROBIC METABOLISM
    • medium activity
    • No O2 present
    • Low yield of ATP & Lactic Acid by-product 2 per cycle.
  17. CREATINE PHOSPHATE
    • low activity
    • Phosphate storage molecule
    • Gives up phosphate molecule to ADP → ATP Used in short bursts of energy (100 m dash)
  18. Where does ATP come from?
    • Aerobic Metabolism
    • Anaerobic Metabolism
    • Creatine Phosphate
  19. ATROPHY
    Decrease in muscle mass due to decreased activity
  20. HYPERTROPHY
    Increase in muscle mass due to increased activity
  21. STEROID HORMONES (Anabolic)
    Increase protein synthesis in musclesResults in hypertrophied muscles
  22. Testosterone
    is a natural steroid found in higher quantities in males that results in larger muscle mass in males vs. females
  23. Fatigue
    • weakness.
    • Loss of muscle contractility due to prolonged use of muscle.
    • Caused by low ATP, build up of lactic acid which lowers enzyme ability.
    • Neurons can run out of ACh. CNS can get tired of stimulating.
  24. ISOMETRIC CONTRACTIONS
    Create muscle tension, but do not change length of muscle
  25. ISOTONIC CONTRACTIONS
    Result in changing length of muscle and movement
  26. MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
    • Duchenne's
    • Sex-linked recessive disease
    • Lack muscle protein DYSTROPHIN
    • Muscles degenerate, weaken, & atrophy
    • Replaced by fat & scar tissue
  27. MYASTHENIA GRAVIS
    • Autoimmune disease
    • Antibodies against ACh receptors in NM Junction
    • Muscles are less sensitive to ACh & become weakened
  28. SHIN SPLINTS
    • Irritation of the tibialis anterior muscle
    • Caused by overuse without conditioning
  29. MUSCLE STRAIN
    • AKA pulled muscle
    • Excessive stretching of a muscle due to overuse/abuse
  30. Sarcolemma
    cell membrane
  31. Sarcoplasm
    • Cytoplasm
    • multiple nuclei
    • glycogen - sugar
    • myoglobin
    • t-tubules.
    • SR
  32. T-Tubules
    • infoldings of sarcolemma.
    • Tell SR when to release Calcium
  33. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
    smooth ER of the muscle fiber - stores calcium
  34. Myofibrils
    bundles of proteins inside the muscle fiber made of myofilaments
  35. 2 types of myofilaments
    • thick
    • thin
  36. Thick myofilaments
    made of 1000's of myosin
  37. Thin Myofilaments
    • made of two beaded strands. Each contain:
    • Actin
    • Troponin: binds calcium
    • Tropomyosin: blocks actin from myosin
  38. A Band
    • dark
    • thick and thin
    • h-band
  39. I Band
    • light
    • thin only
    • z-line
  40. H band
    • lighter
    • in the middle
    • no thin
  41. Z Line
    connect thin

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