Anatomy - Muscles

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Author:
andreabyerly
ID:
53510
Filename:
Anatomy - Muscles
Updated:
2010-12-06 14:46:59
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Muscles
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Description:
Anatomy - Muscle Lab Exam
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  1. Platysma
    • Action:depresses mandible; pulls down lower lip; tenses neck skin
    • Origin: Fascia of deltoid and pectoralis major
    • Insertion: mandible; skin and subcutancous tissue
    • Note: On neck
  2. Orbicularis Oculli
    • Action: contracts individually around the eye (blinking, winking, squinting)
    • Origin: lacrimal bone, adjacent regions of frontal bone and maxilla, medial angle of eyelids
    • Insertion: upper and lower eyelids, skin around margin of orbit
    • Note: circular arond eyeballs
  3. Orbicularis Oris
    • Action: closes, purses, and protrudes the lips
    • Origin: maxilla and mandible
    • Insertion: muscle and skin of the angles of the mouth
    • Note: circular around mouth
  4. Temporalis
    • Action: closes jaw by elevating mandible
    • Origin: temporal lines and temporal fossa of cranium
    • Insertion: coronoid process and anterior border of mandibular ramus
    • Note: on temporal bone
  5. Masseter
    • Action: agonist in elevating the mandible
    • Origin: zygomatic arch and maxilla
    • Insertion: angle of the mandible
    • Note: jawline -feel when chew
  6. Buccinator
    • Action: retraction of the mandible
    • Origin: alveolar process on lateral surfaces of maxilla and mandible
    • Insertion: orbicularis oris; submucosa of cheek and lips
    • Note: cheek- deep
  7. Digastric
    • Action: open mouth; depress mandible; elevate hyoid bone
    • Origin:mastoid notch of temporal bone, digastric fossa of mandible
    • Insertion: hyoid bone
    • Note: 2 belly under jaw
  8. Mylohyoid
    • Action: elevates hyoid bone and floor of mouth, enabling tongue to exert upper and backward pressure
    • Origin: mandible
    • Insertion: hyoid bone
    • Note: under chin - flat - deep
  9. Sternocleidomastoid
    • Action: head and neck flexion; rotation of the head
    • Origin: manubrium of sternum and clavicle
    • Insertion: mastoid process of temporal bone and occipital bone
    • Note: superficial down neck
  10. Trapezius
    • Action: elevate, depress, and rotate scapula
    • Origin: external occipital protuberance, medial one-third of superior nuchal line
    • Insertion: acromion and spine of scapula
    • Note: superficial upper back
  11. Deltoid
    • Action: agonist in arm abduction, flexion, and medial rotation of humerus
    • Origin: insertion of trapezius, clavicle, and acromion and spine of scapula
    • Insertion: deltoid tuberosity of humerus
    • Note: shoulder
  12. Pectoralis Major
    • Action: agonist in arm flexion; adducts arm; rotates arm medially
    • Origin: clavicle, sternum, and cartilage of ribs 1-6
    • Insertion: intertubercular sulcus of the humerus
    • Note: chest
  13. Serratus Anterior
    • Action: prime mover to protract scapula, abduction and raising of arm (punching)
    • Origin: all or nearly all ribs
    • Insertion: medial border of scapula
    • Note: ribs to scapula (deep)
  14. Supraspinatus
    • Action: abduction of arm; stabilizes shoulder
    • Origin: supraspinous fossa of scapula
    • Insertion: greater tubercle of humerus
    • Note: above spine of scapula
  15. Infraspinatus
    • Action: rotates humerus laterally; stabilizes shoulder
    • Origin: infraspinous fossa of scapula
    • Insertion: greater tubercle of humerus
    • Note: below spine of scapula
  16. Teres Major
    • Action: medially rotates and adducts the humerus; synergist of latissimus dorsi
    • Origin: Posterior surface of the scapula
    • Insertion: intertubercular sulcus of humerus
    • Note: below infraspinous to scapula
  17. External Intercostals
    • Action: elevates rib cage during inhalation
    • Origin:inferior margins of ribs 1-11
    • Insertion: each inserts on superior marrgin of next lower rib
    • Note:above ribs (outside)
  18. Internal Intercostals
    • Action: depress rib cage during exhalation
    • Origin:superior margins and costal cartilages of ribs 2-12
    • Insertion: each inserts on inferior margin of next higher rib
    • Note: below ribs (inside)
  19. External Oblique
    • Action: aids in flexion of vertebral column; trunk rotation
    • Origin: ribs 5-12
    • Insertion: iliac crest, pubic symphysis, pubis
    • Note: outermost layer (put hands in pocket)
  20. Internal Oblique
    • Action: aids in flexion of the vertebral column; trunk rotation
    • Origin: inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia, costal cartilages 7-12
    • Insertion: ribs 10-12
    • Note: below external oblique, runs opposite (cut model)
  21. Traversus Abdominis
    • Action: compresses abdomen
    • Origin: inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolimbar fascia, costal cartilages 7-12
    • Insertion: linea alba, pubis
    • Note: under internal oblique. horizontal innermost layer
  22. Rectus Abdominis
    • Action: flex and rotate lumbar region
    • Origin: pubic crest and pubic symphysis
    • Insertion: xiphoid process and costals
    • Note:"straight" up and down - six pack
  23. Latissimus Dorsi
    • Action: adducts and extends arm; depresses scapula
    • Origin: spines of T7-L5, lumbar vertebrae, lower ribs and iliac crest
    • Insertion: intertubercular sulcus of the humerus
    • Note:lower back. under trapezius
  24. Diaphragm
    • Action: agonist of inspiration; flattens to increase thoracic volume
    • Note:separates abdominal from thoracic cavity
  25. Biceps Brachii
    • Action: elbow flexion; supination of forearm
    • Origin: short head - coracoid process. long head - glenoid cavity and intertubercular sulcus of the humerus
    • Note:upper arm. two heads
  26. Tricepts Brachii
    • Action: agonist in forearm extension
    • Origin:long head - scapula. lateral head - posterior humerus. medial head - posterior humerus
    • Insertion: olecranon process of the ulna
    • Note: opposite side of biceps brachii. upper arm
  27. Brachialis
    • Action: flexor of forearm
    • Origin: front of distal humerus
    • Insertion: coronoid process of ulna
    • Note:deep to bicepts brachii
  28. Pronator Teres
    • Action: pronates forearm
    • Note: forearm, thumb side, under brachial ter.
  29. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    • Action: wrist flexion; abduction of hand
    • Note: palm side of forearm. next to pronater teres
  30. Brachioradialis
    • Action: synergist in forearm flexion
    • Note: thumb side. lower arm. big muscle. in front of pronater teres.
  31. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    • Action: flexor of wrist of middle phalanges
    • Note:deep to flexor carpi radialis. feathery.
  32. supinator
    don't need
  33. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    • Action: extends and abducts wrist
    • Note: next to brachioradialis
  34. Extensor Digitorum
    • Action: agonist of finger extension; abduct fingers; extends wrist
    • Note: back of hand. next to extensor carpi radialis longus
  35. Tensor Fasciae Latae
    • Action: extends knee; laterally rotates tibia
    • Note: little toe side of thigh. very top
  36. Gluteus Maximus
    • Action: thigh extensor; laterally rotates and abucts the thigh
    • Origin: dorsal ilium, sacrum, and coccyx
    • Insertion: gluteal tuberosity of femur
    • Note: butt muscle
  37. Gluteus Medius
    • Action: abduct and medially rotate thigh
    • Note: deep to gluteus maximus
  38. Rectus Femoris
    • Action: extends knee; flexion of thigh at the hip
    • Origin: anterior inferior iliac spine and acetabulum
    • Insertion: patella and tibial tuberosity via the patellar tendon
    • Note: straight femor. straight above knee cap. middle thigh
  39. Vastus Medialis
    • Action: extends knee; stabilizes the patella
    • Note: big toe side next to knee thigh
  40. Vastus Lateralis
    • Action: extends and stabilizes the knee
    • Note: lateral to rectus femoris, little toe side. thigh
  41. Sartorius
    • Action: flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates the thigh
    • Origin: anterior superior iliac spine
    • Insertion: medial and proximal aspect of tibia
    • Note:starts big toe side, goes diagonal
  42. Adductor Magnus
    • Action: synergist of hamstrings in extension; adducts and medially rotates and flexes thigh
    • Note: medial thigh, behind gracilis
  43. Adductor Longus
    • Action: adducts, flexes, and medially rotates the thigh
    • Note:in front of gracilis
  44. Gracilis
    • Action: adducts, flexes, and medially rotates the thigh; aids in knee flexion
    • Origin: inferior ramus and body of pubis and ischial ramus
    • Insertion: medial surface of tibia
    • Note: medial thigh, down middle, superficial
  45. Biceps Femoris
    • Action: extends thigh; flexes knee; lateral rotation of leg
    • Origin: ischial tuberosity linea aspera of femur
    • Insertion: head of fibula lateral condyle of tibia
    • Note: lateral side behind leg. thigh.
  46. Semimembranosus
    • Action: thigh extension; knee flexion, medial leg rotation
    • Note: under semitendinosus, more medial
  47. Semitendinosus
    • Action: extends thigh; flexes knee; medially rotates leg
    • Note:next to biceps femoris
  48. Soleus
    • Action: plantar flexion
    • Note: deep to gastrocnemius
  49. Gastrocnemius
    • Action: plantar flexion
    • Origin: medial and lateral condyles of femur
    • Insertion: calcaneus via the achilles tendon
    • Note: calf. superficial
  50. Tibialis Anterior
    • Action: agonist in dorsiflexion; inversion of the foot
    • Origin: lateral condyle and shaft of tibia
    • Insertion: medial cuneiform and first metatarsal via tendon
    • Note:shin
  51. Origin
    where muscle attaches to immoveable bone usually via tendon
  52. Insertion
    where muscle attaches to mobile bone usually via tendon
  53. agonist
    prime mover
  54. antagonist
    counteracts mover
  55. flexion
    decrease angle of joint
  56. extension
    increasing angle of joint
  57. hyperextension
    increasing angle past anatomical position
  58. abduction
    move body part away from midline
  59. adduction
    move body part toward midline
  60. protraction
    move body part anteriorly
  61. retraction
    move body part posteriorly
  62. elevation
    raise body part vertically
  63. depression
    lower body part
  64. circumduction
    one end of limb stays still while other end moves in a circle
  65. supination
    palm up
  66. pronation
    palm down
  67. inversion
    feet where soles face each oher
  68. eversion
    feet where soles go outward
  69. dorsiflexion
    flex foot up
  70. plantar flexion
    point toes down

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