Stimuli oraspects of the environment that are directly manipulated by the experimenter to determine their influences on behavior.
2x2 desing would require how many treatment combinations?
3x3 desing would require how many treatment combinations?
2x3x4 what do the number represent?
the number of levels of one of the IVs
Two disadvantages of conducting separate experiments rather than combining them.
1 it is not as time efficient as runnig one experiment.
2 by running two experiments, you would lose the advantage that yu bain by conducting a factorial experiment: ihte interaction.
the outcomes from the IV's in a factorial experiment
the joint simultaneous effects on the DV of mor than one IV.
a factorial assignment that has a mixture of independent groups for one IV and correlated gourps for another IV.
the plan psychologists use to guide thier experiments is known as the
If your experiment consist of two or more IV's you will use what type of design?
IV's are considered what?
the number of levels of each IV is not improtant in choosing yu paricular factorial design
Combining whoe IV's in an experiment allows you to test for what?
When you randomly assign research participants to their groups
Is all the IV's in your factorial design use independent groups, what type of design are you using?
Between-subjects factorial design
When you use matched pars or sets, repeated measures, or natural pairs or sets, you have what?
If all the IV's in your experimnt use correlated groups, what type of design are you using?
within-subjects factorial design
Mixed factorial designs result from using both independent groups and correlated groups in a factorial design (mixed assignment). At least one IV must use independent groups and at least one must use correlated groups
You have conducted a 2x2 experiment, what infromation will you obtain from the analysis?
the effects of IV A
the effects of IV B
the dffects of AxB
Fraternity members versus nonmembers; men versus women
Totally between-groups design
Fraternity members matched fro family income measured twice
totally within-groups design
fraterinty members versus nonmembers measured twice
mixed factorial design
The simplest possible factorial design would have______IVsand ______ total treatment groups.
Keep it simple stupid
Principle of Parsimony
a research approach in which the experimenter cannot directly manipulate the IV but can only classify, categorize, or measurethe IV because it is prdetermined in the participants
Ex. sex race age
Ex post facto
a factorial desighn with there IVs
three way design
Researchers create ______ by combining two-group or multiple-group designs.
In factorial designs, statisitcal interpretations become more complicated because the increasing number of interactions.
Suppose you wish to tes children from two different racial groups. You would be dealing with a _____ IV.
Totally between-group designs use independent groups of pariticipants for each IV.
Totally within-groups designs us correlated froups pf paricipant for all IVs.
Mixed-groups designs have at least one IV that uses independent groups of paricipants and one that uses correlated groups
Your experimental questions should beyur first consideration in choosing a factorial design because the number of questions you will ask will determine how many IVs your experiment will have.
Interpret: three-way totally between groups design
three IVs and would use random assignment of participants in all conditions.
Interpret: two-way mixed ANOVA
two IVs, one uses random assignment and one uses correlated assignment.
Interpret: 2x3x2 completely between-groups design
there IVs, 2,3,2 levels. assigned paricipants to each of the IVs in a random manner.
Variability in DV scores due to the effects of the IV (also known as between-groups variablity)
Variability in DV scores due to factors other then the IV, such as individual differences, measurement error, and extraneous variation (also known as within groups variablity)
Dramatic consequences that occur when you combine two or more substances, conditions, or organisms. The effects are greater (or less) than what is individually possible.
_____ requires that we have two IVs with independent groups.
Two-way ANOVA for Independent Samples
a table containing the results of ANOVA. Source refers to the source of differenct types of variation.
accepting the experimental hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true.
Type 1 error
Statistical comparisons made between group means after finding a significant F ratio.
Post hoc comparison
a series of research experiments concerning a related topic or question
type of evaluation of your experiment; it asks whether you IV is the only possible explanation ot the results shown for you r DV.
Caused by and uncontrolled extranious variable that varies systemmatically with the IV.
Uncontrolled variables that may unintentionally influence the dependent variable (DV) and thus invalidate an experiment.
Occurs whe we know that a particular IV (cause) leads to specific changes in a DV.
This control techniques ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group in an experiment.
a control technique that ensures that each member of the population has an equal chance of being chosen for an experiment.
the measurement of a behavior made under normal conditions
a research approach popularized by B.F. Skinner, in which a single participant is studied
Experimental analysis of behavior
An observational technique in which a record of observations about a single participant
an experiment that consist of one participant aka N=1 designs
single case experiment
refers to the base line measurement in a single case design
Refers to the outcome (treatment) measurement in a single case design
a single case design in which you measure the baseline behavior, institute a treatment, and use a posttest
a single design consisting of a mesurement, a baseline measurement, a treatment, a posttest, and a return to the baseline condition. It may not be recommended if the participant is left without a beneficial or necessary treatment in the second baseline.
a single-case design consisting og a baseline, treatment, posttest, return to baseline, repeated treatment, and second posttest. This design gives the best chance of isolating causation.
A research design used when the researcher cannot randomly assign experimental participants to the groups but the re-searcher does manipulate an IV and measure a DV.
a design involving two or more groups that are not randomly assigned; a comparison group is compared to one or more treatment groups.
Nonequivalent Group Design
a quasi- experimental design, involving a single group of participants, that includes repeated pretreated measures, an applied treatment, and repeated post- treatment measures.
Interrupted time-series design
A condensed title that is printed at the top of alternate pages of a published article.
the first two or three words of the report's title. Appears with the page number on each page of the research report.
Manuscript page header
a centered section title in which the first letters of major words are capitalized. Occupies a line by itself.
Level 1 head
Title page includes:
manuscript page header, running head,manuscript's title and the names of the authors and their affiliation.
the first subsection of the method section. Provides full information about the participants in the study.
provides a brief summary of the contents of the paper.