Cellular REspiration Added Notes

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Cellular REspiration Added Notes
2010-12-05 19:00:54
AP Biology

Chapter 9
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  1. ___ refers to an organic molecule generated as an intermediate during the catabolism of glucose
    substrate molecules
  2. process in which energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane is used to drive cellular work such as the synthesis of ATP; energy- coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of an H+ gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work
  3. potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across a biological membrane during chemiosmosis
    proton- motive force
  4. Compare fermentation and cellular respiration.
    • Both pathways use glycolysis to oxidize glucose and other organic fuels to pyruvate, with a net production of two ATP by substrate- level phosphorylation.
    • NAD+ is the oxidizing agent that accepts electrons from food during glycolysis
  5. Contrast fermentation and cellular respiration.
    • A key difference is the contrasting mechanisms for oxidizing NADH back to NAD+, which is required to sustain glycolysis
    • - Fermentation: final electron acceptor: organic molecule such as pyruvate (lactic acid ferm.) or acetaldehyde ( alcohol ferm.)
    • Aerobic respiration: Final acceptor from NADH is oxygen
    • - Process not only regenerates NAD+ needed for glycolysis but pays an ATP bonus through the CAC and oxidative phosphorylation.
    • Fermentation: 2 ATP molecules
    • Aerobic: about 38 ATP molecules