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___ refers to an organic molecule generated as an intermediate during the catabolism of glucose
process in which energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane is used to drive cellular work such as the synthesis of ATP; energy- coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of an H+ gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work
potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across a biological membrane during chemiosmosis
proton- motive force
Compare fermentation and cellular respiration.
- Both pathways use glycolysis to oxidize glucose and other organic fuels to pyruvate, with a net production of two ATP by substrate- level phosphorylation.
- NAD+ is the oxidizing agent that accepts electrons from food during glycolysis
Contrast fermentation and cellular respiration.
- A key difference is the contrasting mechanisms for oxidizing NADH back to NAD+, which is required to sustain glycolysis
- - Fermentation: final electron acceptor: organic molecule such as pyruvate (lactic acid ferm.) or acetaldehyde ( alcohol ferm.)
- Aerobic respiration: Final acceptor from NADH is oxygen
- - Process not only regenerates NAD+ needed for glycolysis but pays an ATP bonus through the CAC and oxidative phosphorylation.
- Fermentation: 2 ATP molecules
- Aerobic: about 38 ATP molecules