Oncology Tumor Markers

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Author:
HuskerDevil
ID:
53572
Filename:
Oncology Tumor Markers
Updated:
2010-12-05 20:07:34
Tags:
DPAP2010 Oncology Tumor Markers
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Oncology Tumor Markers
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  1. What are the 5 types of tumor markers?
    • Antigens
    • Enzymes
    • Hormones
    • Oncogenes
    • Tissue Receptors
  2. Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP)
    • ANTIGEN
    • Associated with Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
    • Used for screening in patients w/cirrhosis or hepatitis
    • Can also be elevated in non-seminoma germ cell cancers
  3. Bence-Jones Proteins
    • ANTIGEN (found in urine)
    • Associated with Multiple Myeloma (detection/monitoring)
    • Not found on routine UA, need protein electrophoresis
    • Indicates plasma cell degeneration
    • Can also be elevated in leukemia, lymphoma & bone mets.
  4. Beta-HCG
    • HORMONE (usually only positive in pregnancy)
    • Associated w/Hydatidiform mole of uterus, Choriocarcinoma of uterus or germ cell tumors of ovaries
    • Pathognomonic for germ cell neoplasm in males
    • Can also be elevated in hepatoma
  5. Cancer Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9)
    • ANTIGEN
    • Elevated with pancreatic & hepatobiliary cancer
    • Rapid increase can indicate recurrence in treated patients
    • 5% cannot make the protein
  6. Cancer Antigen-125 (CA-125)
    • ANTIGEN
    • Elevated in ovarian cancer (80 - 90%)
    • Good prognostic indicator: precipitous fall after 2 cycles of chemo
    • Rise in levels is good early predictor of recurrence
  7. Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)
    • ANTIGEN
    • GI cancers, CRC (extent, prognosis, response to tx)
    • Also found in other cancers (breast, SCLC, other GI cancers)
    • Smokers have elevated baseline levels
    • 20% of CRC/breast cancer patients do not make CEA
  8. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
    • ANTIGEN
    • Screening/response to tx/recurrence for prostate cancer
    • High sensitivity, low specificity (infection, enlargement, inflammation can also raise PSA)
    • Have to double levels if patient is taking BPH medication
  9. BRCA-1
    • ONCOGENE (autosomal dominant transmission)
    • Indicates increased genetic susceptibility for breast cancer
    • More common than BRCA 2
  10. BRCA-2
    • ONCOGENE (autosomal dominant transmission)
    • Indicates increased genetic susceptibility for breast cancer
    • Also confers increased risk of developing ovarian cancer
  11. Estrogen Receptor (ER) Assay
    • TISSUE RECEPTOR (test performed on tissue sample)
    • Indicates that breast cancer is likely to respond to hormonal therapy (Tamoxifen, estrogens, androgens, oophorectomy, etc.)
    • Good prognostic indicator
  12. Progesterone Receptor (PR) Assay
    • TISSUE RECEPTOR (test performed on tissue sample)
    • Indicates that breast cancer is likely to respond to hormonal therapy
    • Good prognostic indicator
  13. HER 2/neu
    • ANTIGEN (test performed in breast cancer tissue)
    • Increased HER 2 protein levels associated w/more aggressive breast cancers
    • Can serve as target for trastuzumab (Herceptin)
  14. CA 15-3
    • ANTIGEN
    • Elevated in 70-80% of patients w/metastatic breast cancer
  15. CA 27.29
    • ANTIGEN
    • Used for monitoring response to tx in metastatic breast cancer
  16. Philadelphia Chromosome
    • ONCOGENE
    • Most often elevated in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML); Can also be high in ALL or AML

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