acute renal failure
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Acute tubular necrosis is a type of acute renal failure that results primary from __________ and ___________
Renal ischemia leads to acute tubular necrosis by disrupting the _____________ and causing patchy destruction of the ____________.
nephrotoxic agents cause necrosis of the _____________________ that sloughs off and blocks the
tubular epithelium cells
Acute tubular necrosis from nephrotoxic injury is more likely to be reversible because the _________________ is usually not initially destroyed.
There is no correlation between the amount of ______ ________ and the extent of ______ _______.
Which type of renal failure is caused by decreased cardiac output?
which type of renal failure is caused by mechanical outflow obstruction?
Initial cause of most acute renal failure?
renal failure caused by prostate cancer?
Renal failure caused by prostate cancer?
Renal failure caused by tubular obstruction by myoglobin?
Renal failure caused by hypovolemia?
Renal failure caused by renal stones?
Renal failure caused by nephrotoxic drugs?
Renal failure caused by bladder cancer?
Renal failure caused by renal vascular obstruction?
Renal failure caused by acute glomerulonephritis?
Renal failure caused by anaphylaxis?
The nurse determines that a pt w/oliguria has rerenal oliguria when
reversal of the oliguria occurs with fluid replacement
In ________ oliguria, the oliguria is caused by a _________ in circulating blood volume and there is no damage yet.
Tubular damage is indicated in the pt w/acute renal failure by a UA finding of ?
specific gravity at 1.010
Metabolic acidosis occurs in the oliguric phase of acute renal failure as a result of impaired?
Metabolic acidosis occurs in ARF because the kidneys can not synthesize _________ needed to excrete H+, resulting in an increased _______
A pt is with ARF is in the recovery phase when his BUN and serum creatinine levels?
The most common cause of death in ARF is ?
Serum ________ and ________ are increased during catabolism of body protein.
During the oliguric phase of ARF, daily fluid intake is limited to ______ ml plus the prior day's measurable fluid loss.
Dietary sodium and potassium during the oliguric phase of ARF are managed according to the pt's _____ and ______ levels.
serum sodium and potassium levels
One of the most important nursing measures in managing fluid balance in the pt in ARF is taking __________.
The most common indications for dialysis in ARF include (6)
elevated potassium level
BUN level >120
significant change in menatal status
pericarditis, pericardial effusion, or cardiac tamponade
Two options available for dialysis in ARF
Therapies to treat elevated K+ levels
regular insulin IV
calcium gluconate IV
Sodium polystyrene sulfonate-(Kayexalate)
Nutritional therapy for ARF
adequate protein intake
What should never be given to a pt with a paralytic ileus? Why?
sodium polystyrene sulfonate
bowel necrosis can occur
What is the most important guide in determining the need for dialysis?
Clinical manifestations in urinary system for ARF
decreased urinary output
decreased specific gravity
increased urinary sodium
Clinical manifestations in cardiovascular system for ARF
hypotension (early ARF)
Clinical manifestations in respiratory system in ARF
Clinical manifestations in GI system in ARF
nausea and vomiting
Clinical manifestations in hematologic system in ARF
anemia (w/in 48 hrs)
increased susceptibility to infection
defect in platelet functioning
Clinical manifestations in neurologic system in ARF
Clinical manifestations in metabolic system in ARF
acute renal failure
from study guide