acute renal failure

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Author:
jean
ID:
53577
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acute renal failure
Updated:
2010-12-05 20:25:40
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acute renal failure
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  1. Acute tubular necrosis is a type of acute renal failure that results primary from __________ and ___________
    • ischemia
    • nephrotoxic injury
  2. Renal ischemia leads to acute tubular necrosis by disrupting the _____________ and causing patchy destruction of the ____________.
    • basement membrane
    • tubular epithelium
  3. nephrotoxic agents cause necrosis of the _____________________ that sloughs off and blocks the
    • tubular epithelium cells
    • tubules
  4. Acute tubular necrosis from nephrotoxic injury is more likely to be reversible because the _________________ is usually not initially destroyed.
    basement membrane
  5. There is no correlation between the amount of ______ ________ and the extent of ______ _______.
    • urine produced
    • renal failure
  6. Which type of renal failure is caused by decreased cardiac output?
    prerenal
  7. which type of renal failure is caused by mechanical outflow obstruction?
    postrenal
  8. Initial cause of most acute renal failure?
    prerenal
  9. renal failure caused by prostate cancer?
    postrenal
  10. Renal failure caused by prostate cancer?
    postrenal
  11. Renal failure caused by tubular obstruction by myoglobin?
    intrarenal
  12. Renal failure caused by hypovolemia?
    prerenal
  13. Renal failure caused by renal stones?
    postrenal
  14. Renal failure caused by nephrotoxic drugs?
    intrarenal
  15. Renal failure caused by bladder cancer?
    postrenal
  16. Renal failure caused by renal vascular obstruction?
    prerenal
  17. Renal failure caused by acute glomerulonephritis?
    intrarenal
  18. Renal failure caused by anaphylaxis?
    prerenal
  19. The nurse determines that a pt w/oliguria has rerenal oliguria when
    reversal of the oliguria occurs with fluid replacement
  20. In ________ oliguria, the oliguria is caused by a _________ in circulating blood volume and there is no damage yet.
    • prerenal
    • decrease
  21. Tubular damage is indicated in the pt w/acute renal failure by a UA finding of ?
    specific gravity at 1.010
  22. Metabolic acidosis occurs in the oliguric phase of acute renal failure as a result of impaired?
    ammonia synthesis
  23. Metabolic acidosis occurs in ARF because the kidneys can not synthesize _________ needed to excrete H+, resulting in an increased _______
    • ammonia
    • acid load
  24. A pt is with ARF is in the recovery phase when his BUN and serum creatinine levels?
    decrease
  25. The most common cause of death in ARF is ?
    infection
  26. Serum ________ and ________ are increased during catabolism of body protein.
    • potassium
    • urea
  27. During the oliguric phase of ARF, daily fluid intake is limited to ______ ml plus the prior day's measurable fluid loss.
    600
  28. Dietary sodium and potassium during the oliguric phase of ARF are managed according to the pt's _____ and ______ levels.
    serum sodium and potassium levels
  29. One of the most important nursing measures in managing fluid balance in the pt in ARF is taking __________.
    Daily wts
  30. The most common indications for dialysis in ARF include (6)
    • volume overload
    • elevated potassium level
    • metabolic acidosis
    • BUN level >120
    • significant change in menatal status
    • pericarditis, pericardial effusion, or cardiac tamponade
  31. Two options available for dialysis in ARF
    • hemodialysis
    • peritoneal dialysis
  32. Therapies to treat elevated K+ levels
    • regular insulin IV
    • sodium bicarbonate
    • calcium gluconate IV
    • dialysis
    • Sodium polystyrene sulfonate-(Kayexalate)
    • Dietary Restriction
  33. Nutritional therapy for ARF
    • adequate protein intake
    • potassium restriction
    • phosphate restriction
    • sodium restriction
  34. What should never be given to a pt with a paralytic ileus? Why?
    • sodium polystyrene sulfonate
    • bowel necrosis can occur
  35. What is the most important guide in determining the need for dialysis?
    clinical assessment
  36. Clinical manifestations in urinary system for ARF
    • decreased urinary output
    • proteinuria
    • casts
    • decreased specific gravity
    • decreased osmolality
    • increased urinary sodium
  37. Clinical manifestations in cardiovascular system for ARF
    • volume overload
    • heart failure
    • hypotension (early ARF)
    • hypertension
    • pericarditis
    • pericardial effusion
    • dysrhythmias
  38. Clinical manifestations in respiratory system in ARF
    • pulmonary edema
    • Kussmaul respirations
    • pleural effusions
  39. Clinical manifestations in GI system in ARF
    • nausea and vomiting
    • anorexia
    • stomatitis
    • bleeding
    • diarrhea
    • constipation
  40. Clinical manifestations in hematologic system in ARF
    • anemia (w/in 48 hrs)
    • increased susceptibility to infection
    • leukocytosis
    • defect in platelet functioning
  41. Clinical manifestations in neurologic system in ARF
    • lethargy
    • seizures
    • asterixis
    • memory impairment
  42. Clinical manifestations in metabolic system in ARF
    • increased BUN
    • increased Creatinine
    • decreased sodium
    • increased potassium
    • decreased pH
    • decreased bicarb
    • decreased calcium
    • increased phosphate

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