Microbiology Final Exam

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Microbiology Final Exam
2010-12-05 21:31:29
Final Exam

Microbiology Final Exam Review
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  1. Father of Microbiology
    Father of Microbiology
  2. Father of Epidemiology
    John Snow
  3. A serotype is a:
    antibody grouping
  4. Magnetosomes
  5. lysosomes
  6. chromosomes
  7. Ribosomes
    protein synthesis
  8. mesosomes
  9. DNA is made up of nucleotides; true or false?
  10. Carbohydrates do not:
    code for proteins
  11. Proteins that turn things off and on are:
    regulator proteins
  12. The nucleolus is:
    The risbosome assembly site
  13. The nuclear envelope is:
    a double membrane surrounding the nucleus
  14. An obligate anerobe:
    can only grown in teh absence of O2
  15. Psychrophiles
    grow in temperatures under 20 C
  16. Thermophiles grown in:
    hot temperatures
  17. Acidophiles
    grow in acidic environments
  18. Halophiles grow in:
    salty environments
  19. Xenophiles
    grow in dry environments
  20. Phosolipids are composed of:
    polar head group and hydrophobic chains
  21. Prokaryotic cells have what kind of appendages?
    flagella, pili/fimbriae
  22. Mycoplasma have cell walls T or F?
  23. Bdellovibrio do what?
    parasitize other bacteria
  24. Which of the following can be seen by a gram stain, spirochetes or spirilliums?
  25. What is the function of Braun's lipoprotein?
    to anchor the outher membrane to the peptidoglycan
  26. The specialized membrane found only in Gram - baceria is the
    A) Periplasm
    B) Outer membrane
    B) Outer membrane
  27. What are the steps in an acid fast procedure?
    • carbofulchism
    • steam
    • acid-alcohol
    • methylene blue
  28. Actinomyces causes
    lumpy jaw
  29. Histoplasma capsulatam
    the only true intracellular fungal pathogen
  30. Blastomyces dermatidis causes
    Pneumonia with skind and bone lesions
  31. Coccidiodes immitis
    forms sporangium with 100-500 spores
  32. Aspergillus is hard to identify because:
    it is a common laboratory contaminant
  33. Cryptococcus neoformans is:
    a common fungal cause of meningitis
  34. The most frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients is:
    Pneumocystis Carinii
  35. What caused the Irish potatoe famine?
    Phytophthora infestans
  36. Causes Ergots disease
    claviceps purpurea
  37. Norcardia is responsible for:
    Madura's foot
  38. Fungi growing as multicellular sheets are:
  39. Fungi that are known as the sac fungi are called:
  40. A common fungal source of antibiotics is:
  41. What disease contains a fungal pneumonia mimicking tuberculosis but no skin/bone involvement?
    Histoplasma capsulatum
  42. The polymerase chain reaction is:
    The use of primers to specifically make copies of a pathogen's DNA
  43. The restriction fragment length polymorphism is:
    The cutting of pathogens DNA with restriction enzymes and looking for banding patterns
  44. Exons
    contain genetic information that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein
  45. twitching motility is accomplished by
  46. A set of membrane sacs that allow for specific modification of secreted proteins are:
  47. Club fungi are called:
  48. What is the central dogma of genetics?
    DNA is transcribed in to RNA and then translated into protein
  49. What are the three types of disease transmission?
    contact, vehicle, vector
  50. What are the three reservoirs of infection?
    human, animal, non-living
  51. What are the 2 main function of antibodies?
    create a resistance to a viral gene and aid in protection against a virus (immunity)
  52. Pfiesteria piscidia
    pathogenic algae found in the Chesapeake Bay
  53. Causes bloody diarrhea and liver abcesses
    Entamoeba histolyca
  54. Teardrop shaped diarrheal pathogen
    Giardia lamblia
  55. Balantidium coli
    giant ciliate that causes intermittent diarrhea
  56. Cryptosporidium
    causes recurrent prolonged diarrhea in AIDS patients
  57. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
    common in children, causes insomnia, itching, and restlessness at night
  58. Ascaris lumbricoides
    Eggs in the soil; eggs ingested and migrate through intestine to lungs and reswallowed and grows in the lumen
  59. Necator and Anclystoma (hookworm)
    Eggs hatch in the soil, larvae invade through hair follicle and migrate to the lung and are swallowed.
  60. Taenia saginata
    beef tapeworm
  61. Trichomonas vaginalis
    vaginits w/ discharge
  62. malaria causes:
    relapsing fever with fever, fatigue, chills and sweating
  63. Toxoplasma gondii is acquired:
    when changing kitty litter
  64. Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)
    chronic infections of the heart
  65. Leishmania
    cutaneous infection that can lead to significant scarring; vectorborne by sand fly
  66. Schistosomes
    second most common parasitic disease, can be caught while swimming/wading
  67. Trichinella spiralis
    cysts in skeletal muscle of pork; acquired by eating undercooked pork
  68. Ciliated non-photosynthetic protozoans are:
  69. Non-motile non-photosynthetic protozoans are:
  70. In ciliates the "silent" nucleus is the:
  71. The first step of DNA replication is:
    unwinding the DNA
  72. termination of circular chromosomes involves:
  73. Transpeptidation is the process by which:
    The amino acid chain is txferred from the rRNA in the P-site to the tRNA in the A-site
  74. Elongation is best described as:
    Fill A - transpeptidate, translocate - eject
  75. conjugation refers to:
    the movement of DNA from one cell to another cell through a pilus
  76. Transduction is
    the movement of DNA from one cell to another by a virus
  77. The function of histones in the cell is to
    Package the DNA
  78. The strand of DNA that is made in one continuous stretch is the
    Leading strand
  79. tRNA bringing the next amino acid enters the
    A site
  80. Recombination is
    the insertion of a single strand of DNA into the chromosome resulting in a heteroduplex with one normal gene and one changed gene
  81. During integration the function of the integrase
    An enzyme that cuts the DNA and inserts the transposon
  82. The purpose of restriction enzyme is to
    cut foregin DNA up if it comes into the cell
  83. Capping mRNA in eukaryotes does NOT involve what?
    capping the 3' end
  84. virus
    consists of protein and nucleic acid but non-living
  85. sattelite virus
    only infectious to a virus infected cell
  86. viroid
    consists only of naked RNA
  87. prion
    consists only of protein
  88. The most common viral shape is:
  89. The major problem of having linear DNA viral genome is:
    Host cells dont copy the end of the virus with telomerase
  90. + RNA is equivalent to:
  91. The viral life cycle is:
    adsorption, penetration, multiplication, release
  92. The function of reverse transcriptase is to:
    copy DNA to RNA
  93. What shape is a helical virus?q
  94. Disease presents with dementia, loss of motor control, rhythmic jerking may be caused by
  95. The genome of a segmented virus is packed ino
    One virion
  96. Entry of the virus genome by fusion with the membrane compartments within the cell is known as:
    fusion with the endosome
  97. Immunity that is the organisms non-specific response is:
    innate immunity
  98. Short antimicrobial peptides secreted into the mucous are called:
  99. binding of available iron:
  100. Interferons are most important for nonspecific immunity to
  101. The alternate complement pathway is activated in response to
    Activated nonspecifically by foregin antigens
  102. The membrane attack complex consists of
    C5b, C6, C7, C8, C9
  103. Microbial antagonism involves:
    Normal flora
  104. The sebaceous glands are found in the:
    Hair folicle
  105. The first antibody to appear after initial exposure is:
  106. sIgA is:
  107. This antibody is responsible for allergic rx:
  108. The only antibody that can cross the placenta is:
  109. The part of the antibody that interacts with the complement is the
    heavy and light chain
  110. Cytotoxic T-cells
    Function in cellular immunity by helping to kill cells with foreign antigens.
  111. the most abundant antibody class is:
  112. Which enzyme degrades peptidoglycan?
  113. The mannose binding lectin complement pathway is activated in response to:
    foreign antigens containing mannose
  114. T or F: Gram + bacteria are sensitive to complement
  115. This antibody is secreted in colostrum
  116. Which antibody is responsible for mucosal immunity?
  117. Immunity that is mediated by specific antibodies is:
    antibody mediated immunity
  118. Antibodies to the islet cells of the pancreas result in
  119. B 12 deficiency is associated with
    Pernicious anemia