Pathogenic Micro.txt

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
536
Filename:
Pathogenic Micro.txt
Updated:
2009-10-26 14:10:27
Tags:
pseudemonas
Folders:

Description:
gram negative
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  1. what are some general characteristics of pseudomonas ?
    • straight rods sometimes curved
    • arrange in pars
    • motile ( single, polar flagellum)
    • capsule
    • nonferment can used nitrate as electron acceptor
    • biofilm formation
  2. what are some growth conditions ?
    • 37 optimal growth but it grows between 4-42
    • special media (p/F) > production of blue green colonies pyocicin Vs. Fluorescein
    • colonies after 1, 2 days
  3. factors associated with pathogenesis of psudemonas :
    • adhesins bind to basement membrane
    • laminin exposed after damage of epithelium
    • capsule> anti phagocytic, anti complement and anti antibiotic
    • LPS> proinflamatory leading to septic shock
    • TTSS> important for transport of effector into target cell
  4. what are exotoxins and secreted enzymes by psudemonas associated with its pathogenisis?
    • pyocyanin ( blue colony)
    • >secreted in large amounts
    • > inhibits ciliary movement
    • exotoxin A ( inhibits protein synthesis)
    • > A.B toxin
    • > structurally and functionally similar to diphterea ( targeting
    • different receptors)
    • Enzyme S+T
    • > inhibit cytosleketon polymerization
    • > inhibit wound healing via inhibition of cell division
    • ( important for estabilating colonization in epithelium)
    • Elastases
    • > degrade elastin
    • > induce tissue damage
    • > degradation of complement
    • phospholipid C
    • > heat labile homolysin
    • rhamnlipid
    • > heat stable homolysin
  5. what is the hemolytic pattern of psudemonas ?
    beta
  6. how is P.aeroginosa transmitted?
    • ubiquitous in environment
    • minimal nutritional
    • persist on dry surface for month
    • opportunistic
    • mostly on CF patients
    • cause of nosocomial
    • 75% of all intensive care unit patients are colonized
    • extracellular pathogen
  7. what are some clinical manifestation associated with p.aeroginosa in uncomprimized individuals?
    • swimmers ear ( treatment with common antibiotic , in sever case aggrasive tantimicrobial treatment and surgical)> external otitis
    • tub rash (folliculitis, self limiting)
    • ** both infections above can be caused by exposure to contaminated water
  8. what are some clinical manifestation in case of opportunistic psudemonas causing tissue damage?
    • Eye infection
    • > inital truma to cornea via contaminated water
    • > corneal ulcer development
    • > prompt treatment necessary
    • Primary skin infection
    • > burn wounds
    • > severe burns
    • > leads to vascular damage and tissue necrossis
    • > often cause bacteremia
  9. clinical manifestation of opportunistic psudemonas due to medical device?
    • UTI
    • > mostly in patients with catherets
    • > patients who have gone through multiple round of antibiotic treatment
    • for previous nosocomial causing psudemona
    • Pneumoniea
    • > in immunocomprimised patients with recent antibiotic treatment
  10. what are some diagnostic tools for psudemonas?
    • culture ( beta hemolytic/ (p.F) pigmentation/ grape odor)
    • biochemical test > nitrate reduction
    • Oxidase positive
  11. what are some reasons causing drug resistance in psudemonas?
    • degrease uptake
    • b.lactamase production/ alteration of PBP
    • altered target
  12. what are treatments possible for psudemonal infections?
    • treatment is difficult due to antibiotic resistance
    • usually combination of two antibiotics with different targets
    • broad spectrum of antibiotics should be avoided due to elimination of common microglora
  13. what are some ways to prevent psudemonal infections?
    • no vaccine
    • it can't be totally eliminated
    • increase effort to avoid contamination of medical devices
  14. what are some resistance mechanism in 1b.lactamase , 2aminoglycoside , 3chloramphenicol and 4flouroqunilols?
    • 1. btactamase hydrolysis, alteration of protein binding
    • 2. enzyme hydrolysis by acetylation and phosphorelation altering ribosomal target
    • 3. enzymatic hydrolysis
    • 4. altered target ( DNA gyrease)

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