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2010-12-05 22:43:19

Ch. 7: Executive Processes
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  1. 1. An accidental explosion during railroad construction sent a tamping iron through Phineas Gage’s:
    a. temporal lobe
    c. temporal lobe
    b. frontal lobe
    d. occipital lobe
    b. frontal lobe
  2. 2. Phineas Gage’s accident had the most impact on his:
    a. personality
    c. intelligence
    b. motor control
    d. vision
    a. personality
  3. 3. The idea that every executive process is mediated by the PFC is the:
    a. executive mediation theory
    c. prefrontal control theory
    b. frontal executive hypothesis
    d. homunculus hypothesis
    b. frontal executive hypothesis
  4. 4. A psychological test in which color words are printed in compatible print colors on some trials and incompatible print colors on other trials.
    a. Garner task
    c. Stroop task
    b. Hanoi task
    d. Wisconsin Card Sort task
    c. Stroop Task
  5. 5. With normal subjects, responses to incompatible Stroop trials are ___________ accurate and ____________ than responses to compatible trials.
    a. more, slower
    c. less, faster
    b. about as, faster
    d. about as, slower
    d. about as, slower
  6. 6. Cards are sorted by the number of items on the card, the color of the items, or the number of the items in the ______________ task.
    a. trading card
    c. Vegas Card Sort
    b. Wisconsin Card Sort
    d. Stroop Card Sort
    b. Wisconsin Card Sort
  7. 7. Frontal lobe patients are ___________ at determining the _________ critical attribute in the Wisconsin Cart Sort task compared to normal participants.
    a. slower, first
    c. faster, second
    b. the same, first
    d. the same, second
    b. the same, first
  8. 8. Results from the Wisconsin Card Sort task with frontal patients suggests that the PFC is important for:
    a. self-monitoring
    c. inhibiting irrelevant information
    b. developing subgoals
    d. attention switching
    d. attention switching
  9. 9. Executive attention is required whenever:
    a. a response is necessary
    c. language is involved
    b. multiple processes are competing
    d. a complex response is necessary
    b. multiple processes are competing
  10. 10. Little executive attention is needed when a task is ______________.
    a. intentional
    c. controlled
    b. automatic
    d. voluntary
    b. automatic
  11. 11. You are working for a car manufacturer and one of your engineers shows you a new steering wheel design. He claims that the car will be easier to use because all of the controls are on the steering wheel directly in front of the driver. For example, the turn signal is a toggle switch. You press up to signal a right-hand turn and down for a left-hand turn. You ask the engineer to re-think his design because it lacks __________________.
    a. ergonomic compatibility
    c. the potential for automatic processing
    b. executive control
    d. stimulus-response compatibility
    d. stimulus-response compatibility
  12. 12. Neural network models are composed of ______________________ layers.
    a. input, processing, and output
    c. stimulus, operational, and response
    b. input, supplemental, and output
    d. input, hidden, and output
    d. input, hidden, and output
  13. 13. In the three-layer neural-network model of cognitive processing for the Stroop task, errors are made on the incompatible trials because the connection between the word nodes of the hidden layer and the response nodes is:
    a. ambiguous
    c. stronger than the color-response connection
    b. excited
    d. inhibiting other words
    c. stronger than the color response connection
  14. 14. The response layer of a neural-network is associated with the:
    a. prefrontal cortex
    c. cerebellum
    b. response pathway
    d. motor cortex
    d. motor cortex
  15. 15. Cohen et al. (1996) referred to the executive-attention component of a neural-network as the:
    a. homunculus
    c. central executive
    b. attentional controller
    d. monitoring system
    b. attentional controller
  16. 16. The attentional controller activates nodes in a neural-network based on:
    a. similarity across representations
    c. amount of conflict in the response layer
    b. signal strength
    d. relevance to goals
    d. relevance to goals
  17. 17. The _____________ monitors the amount of conflict between nodes at the response level and engages executive attention as conflict increases.
    a. conflict monitor
    c. task monitor
    b. response monitor
    d. attentional controller
    a. conflict monitor
  18. 18. Asking “is it bigger than a bread box” is common while playing 20 questions. However, this is not a particularly helpful question if the object you are attempting to identify is a member of a ___________ category.
    a. variable
    c. fixed
    b. miscellaneous
    d. dimensionless
    a. variable
  19. 19. Alzheimer’s disease patients have atrophy of the:
    a. fusiform gyrus
    c. ventricles
    b. prefrontal cortex
    d. superior temporal cortex
    b. prefrontal cortex
  20. 20. A process that is initiated without our intention is considered to be:
    a. efficient
    c. self-instantiating
    b. habituated
    d. automatic
    d. automatic
  21. 21. _______________ consciousness focuses on the inputs while ______________ consciousness addresses processing.
    a. Thalamic, prefrontal
    c. Sensory, phenomenological
    b. Awareness, introspective
    d. Primary, secondary
    b. Awareness, introspective
  22. 22. It is speculated that information cannot be conscious unless it is first processed in the:
    a. occipital lobe
    c. frontal lobe
    b. temporal lobe
    d. parietal lobe
    c. frontal lobe
  23. 23. The difference in response time between alternating blocks and pure blocks is referred to as the:
    a. switching cost
    c. processing differential
    b. task interference
    d. engage-disengage time
    a. switching cost
  24. 24. In the information-processing model for task switching, executive processes include ___________ and __________.
    a. goal shifting, response selection
    c. attention shifting, goal development
    b. decision making, monitoring
    d. goal shifting, rule activation
    d. goal shifting, rule activation
  25. 25. Suppressing a partially prepared response is known as:
    a. response suppression
    c. the partial response effect
    b. response inhibition
    d. executive control
    b. response inhibition
  26. 26. Response inhibition is related to the _______________ of the PFC.
    a. development
    c. size
    b. firing rate
    d. density
    a. development
  27. 27. Coding the temporal order of a sequence of events is called:
    a. sequencing
    c. an action plan
    b. episodic mapping
    d. a subgoal progression
    a. sequencing
  28. 28. Suppose you are given the memory set GTKM followed by the probe “t” in an item information task. What should your response be?
    a. no
    c. K
    b. yes
    d. T
    b. yes
  29. 29. Suppose you are presented that memory set WHLC and the probe “h” in an order information task. What should be your response?
    a. w
    c. yes
    b. no
    d. l
    d. l
  30. 30. As you increase the distance between two probe letters in an order task, the faster the response time. This is known as the:
    a. attentional blink
    c. sleeper effect
    b. positive probe effect
    d. distance effect
    d. distance effect
  31. 31. Assessing one’s ongoing performance is:
    a. executive control
    c. monitoring
    b. introspection
    d. evaluation
    c. monitoring