Text of fundamental importance of Chinese painting theory.
-Sympathetic response to qi (vitality)
-Structural method on the use if the brush (bone)
-Fertility to object (focus)
-Suitability of type
-Property planning and placement
-Transmission of experience of the past in making copies
What is qi yun?
How is Chinese painting judged?
By the quality and authenticity of the character of its brushwork.
Who was Gu Kaizhi?
Early critic that wrote "How To Paint Cloud Terrace Mountain.
How do Xie He and Gu Kaizhi statements about painting differ?
In Xie He's paintings the critic is speaking, in Gu Kaizhi's paintings the artist is speaking.
Why are there so few paintings left from the 6 dynasties period?
War during the 6 dynasties period destroyed art.
Gu Kaizhi worked for which court?
Eastern Jin court
Why is Gu Kaizhi "Instructress Writing Down Her Admonitions...." painting an example of the Confucian painting style?
-Li (proper behavior)
What 3 elements identify the work as a major achievement in Chinese painting?
-4th century headdress
What connections are made between Gu Kaizhi Instructress painting and the Lady Dai banner?
What does the Calligraphy printed on paintings signify?
A defining boundary around figure, drapery or object.
-Comments on work
What changes in design occur in Kaizhi's style as seen in the Nymph of the Lou River?
What did Tang critics say about the 6 dynasties artist's portrayal of mountains?
-Elaborate fairy land miniature
-Landscapecurious shifts on scale
-Overlapping mt. ranges in background
-General composition & landscape as narrative subject
Describe Zhang Sengyou's style of painting.
-Color on silk
What series is he noted for?
"The Five Planets and Twenty-Eight Celestial Constellations
Describe the general characteristics of Tang and 5 dynasties period.
proportioned and fully 3-D
Who was Yan Liben and what subjects was he known for?
Was an administrator, court artist, and artist-hero.
Why was the 13 emperors painting created?
What are the characteristics of Yan Liben's style?
Who are Louhans/arhats?
How do they appear in paintings and why?
torturous, terrifying and exhausting.realistic and grotesque.
Why were the Louhan's shown in a grotesque manner?
grotesque represents sacrifice, suffering and inner beauty.
Zhou Fang famous for what type of subject matter?
depictions of woman as courtly woman
How did Zhou Fang portray the subjects in his paintings?
Describe the general characteristics of Tang landscape paintings.
Describe the stylistic features of Tang Guardian figurines.
What lead to the rise of the Song Dynasty?
tang grandees destroyed each other fighting for the throne. individual powerful governing elite took over.
What elements of the Tang Dynasty were continued in the Song?
order of society
buddhist compassion and kinship
Why were Academies important in the development of painting?
List some of the features of th Song painting style.
How did the Song interpret nature (a continuation of previous philosophy)?
nature- metaphor for the moral and metaphysical order.
What are the 3 interpretations relating to the experience and representation of nature?
What is the orientation of the paintings on hanging versus hand scroll?
hanging scroll is a painting surface of paper or silk, mounted with paper backing and cloth facing, stored in rolled up form and exhibited unrolled and suspended from a peg or portable stick some seven to nine feet above the ground. usually vertical in format and some approach a horizontal arrangement.
hand scrolls are horizontal in their long dimension which can measure about one foot to forty. painting surface likewise paper or silk and the exterior binding is usually a rich brocade.
How are single sheet paintings typically framed?
in a border (sometimes multiple border) of silk.
What are 5 painting styles of the Song?
What are the characteristics of the 1st style and name a few artists associated with this style?
late tang style. archaic, aristocratic garden, realism, perspective.
What are the characteristics of the 2nd style?
nature, vertical, man within nature
Who were literati painters and why were they viewed differently from craftsmen?
gentleman-scholars. self expression, originality and artlessness.
What are the characteristics of the 3rd style?
Li longmian 11th, academy of Hui Zong (emperor) accurate analysis of form
What subject matter did Hui Zong master?
academicians- "fur and feathers" of animals or birds, conjunction of flowering tree branches.
realism and analysis of form and color
What are the characteristics of the 4th style?
government official and gentleman
miniaturization of monumental form
fur and feathers
Which academy did Ma Yuan help organize?
Hang Zhou academy
What other titles did Ma Yuan hold that also lead to criticism from his rivals and why?
What was the name of the school of landscape painters Ma Yuan was associated with?
Where was Ma Yuan's style most popular?
What are the characteristic of the 5th style?
writing into pictorial form, calligraphic brushwork, monochrome ink, personal expression, close up detail
What is wen ren?
scholar painter style
What elements of Buddhism and Zen (Chan) are seen key to spontaneous mode?
initiative response to nature
Why was Liang Kai known as "Madman Liang"?
Describe the mythological story associated with Guanyin/Avalokiteshvara in China?
filial piety- gave her arms and legs to her father.
myth of princess mioashan
How did the Chinese justify the transformation from male to female?
once you reach the level of nirvana or budhisattuas, gender doesnt matter.
Why is it appropriate to show her/him as androgynous according to Buddhist law?
What are the differences between Northern and Southern Song ceramics?
north (classic, simple, flow, monochromatic, matte surface)
North: geladon- beehive kiln, low temp, white, peasant and rich
south: porcelain, gray ware, blue/white, blue green.
What are tearstains?
colored drops created when slips were fired in kiln on pottery surfaces.
What are glazes?
monochromatic, with rather soft, mat surfaces that appear an integral part of the ceramic form and with a depth and texture wondrously inviting to the touch . pg. 384
What are the features of Jun ware?
celadon porcelaneous stone ware. gray/ gray tan
blue, purple, mauve glazes, slow cooling kiln.
Describe the 2 types of Guan ware.
Type A: possibly northern but definitely more opague in glaze and wider in crackle than type B. simple, and pure ceramic types., notably "gall-bladder" vase.
Type B: ascribed to the Phoenix Hill Kiln within the palace ground in Hangzhou, is bluer in glaze color with more grainy body and often a smaller crackle pattern. purely ceramic shapes and in archaistic imitations of ancient bronzes. shape of an archaic gui. pg 392
How is this effect created?
Who ruled the Yuan Dynasty and what effect did this have on artistic production?
Kubilai khan forced painters to produce his own paint and others focused on pointing landscapes.
What traditions were continued under the Yuan Dynasty?
Cizhou (peasant) and Yingqing ware
What new traditons were added?
black glaze and blue glaze (persia)
What is Shufu?
chinese white porcelain
What is the difference between under glaze and overglaze?
What is the difference between the Kaishu and Kuang Cao Shu type of calligraphy?
kai shu type huang tingjian. its regular.
Kuang Cao Shu type Zhu Yunming. scriptive/ freeform.
Who are the 4 great masters of Yuan painting?
Huang Gongwang, Wu Zhen, Ni Zen and wang meng.
What traditions from the Song period did they borrow?
Song Lyric tradition: landscape and religion
Describe the elements of Huang Gonwang's style.
northern song monumental style, emphasis on horizontal, clusters of brushwork.
Who was Zhao Mengfu's main supporter.
What types of paintings was Mengfu known for and why did this allow him to become court painter?
horses. animal paintings. pg 458
Why are Mengfu's paintings sometimes called "artless?"
like autumn colors, he aims seems to be produce a work with only the barest pictorial existence with the emphasis transferred to the writing of the brush.
How should you interact with a Chinese garden?
Describe the design of a Chinese garden and what is the connection to painting?
Who were the rulers of the Ming Dynasty?
peasant born chinese hongqu emperor
What is the meaning of the word Ming?
bright or brilliant
Where was the central location of the Ming Dynasty?
What did they revive in terms of the arts?
ma xia style of the southern song dynasty and painters of religious pictures. terms included sculptors and ceramics lacquer and textile workers.
What conflict arose within the arts?
What cities make up the capital of the Ming Dynasty?
- imperial city
-walled forbidden city
What is Feng Shui?
What is Qi (ch'i)?
What are the imperial colors of China?
red and yellow
What symbolic meaning is represented by the design of the Capital complex?
Name a few of the buildings within the cities and their purposes (at least 3)
1. the gate of heavenly peace (Tian An Men)- five vaulted gateways topped by a pavilion with double eaves lines. its the entrance to the imperial city
2. meridian gate (Wu men)- a massive structure housing government offices and topped by five symmetrically located second-story pavilions. entrance to forbidden city
3. gate of supreme harmony (Tai He Men)- five virtues, 5 elements, and five confucius relationship.
Why is 5 repeated through the complex?
Describe the design of the Hall of Supreme Harmony.
spacious courtyard crossed from east to west by a bow-shaped waterway spanned by five parallel arched marble bridges, symbolic of such auspicous five as the five elements, the five virtues and the five confucian relationship,
What takes place inside the Hall?
tile roof, bracketing, stone platform, and modular bays constructed of wooden posts and lintels. pg 469
What symbolism is portrayed on the Imperial throne?
pearls (ceiling) detect evil
elephant shaped incense burners
symbol of imperial powers.
seat of the son of heaven.
What does the imperial throne symbolize in overall?
Where did we first see the design portrayed inside and on the outer walls of the entire complex and what does the incorporation of these designs suggest?
Describe the Ming painting style.
Who are Daoist Immortals?
Why was Wen Zhenming an ideal painter?
Why are Ming vases so famous?
What traditions did they appropriate (borrow)?
What is An Hua?
secret or hidden decorations
What is Dua Cai?
fitted. but also signify contending
What is Wu Cai?
five color enamels
Describe the steps involved in creating a Wu Cai vessel?
Describe the Fa Hua technique.
Who ruled the Qing Dynasty?
What is the meaning of the Qing?
Where did the Qing Dynasty rulers reside?
Who was Yu?
What are Qi Fu?
dragon robe. gold and silver.
What is a Ch'ao fu?
ritual court robe
List 3 types of Ming/Qing Imperial/Dragon robes.
ke si, ming, Qing
What is Ke si?
silk tapestry technique.
hand weave, cut silk, colors woven separately
What is the significance of the hoof sleeve?
Describe some of the symbols of rank that appear on the robes.
sun, moon, constellation, mountain, pair of dragons, bird, cups, water weed, millet fire, ax, symmetrical "fu" sumbol (good fortune/power)
Name some of the non-ranking symbols of the robes?
wan and shou medallions, buddhist and daoist symbols and bats= happiness and longevity
Why are some painters classified as Individualists?
Why does Qian Du's painting represent the fall of the Qing dynasty?
What mood is represented in Ren Xiong's self-portrait and why?
What is moonlight glaze?
claire de lune
What is hua shi?
creamy white color of porcelain
What events led to the fall of the Qing Empire?
What effect did Communist rule have on artistic production (visually and for the artists)?
Describe the symbolism that was used to demonstrate Emperor Mao's power?
What types of works were produced under the reign of Emperor Mao Zedong?
What types of works were produced after the ban was lifted?
Where was the capital of Korea located during the 11th & 12th centuries?
Describe the formal elements of Korean ceramics and their origins (see Maebyong vase).
What occurs politically during the Joseon (Choson) period in Korea?
What artistic style was borrowed?
Describe the Pung'ong ware.
For the contemporary artist note the media they used as well as the formal elements of their works and their individual message.
What is Mikkyo Buddhism?
esoteric buddhism (specialist)
dissatisfied with money on temples and nara sect.
sects- tendai and shingon.
Describe the features of Jogan temples.
mountains and asymmetrical
What is Raigo?
amida (pure land buddha
What Chinese elements appear at Ho-o-do?
tile roof, stone platform
What is a Kin & Biwa?
kin is a nara period style. stringed musical instrument. wood, lacquer work, tortoiseshell, ivory and silver. heidatsu: inlaid shell
biwa- tang style. nara period. various woods, tortoise shell, mother of pearl, gold, amber
What is Ichiboku-suzkuri and Yosegi-zukuri?
ichiboku, suzkuri- one block
What is Hompa shiki?
rolling wave pattern
Who is Kichijoten?
What style did the Nara painters borrow?
What is mandala?
Describe the design of the mandala?
How is someone supposed to interact with a mandala?
What is Emaki?
narrative hand scroll
What is Kana?
What is Onna-e?
Describe the formal elements of the Tale of Genji.
series of hand scrolls, series of random scenes, woman and husband taking leave nakanokimi and maid and birds eye view
What are Otako-e?
What type of leadership took control of Japan during the Kamakura period?
Who is a Daimyo?
What are Bushi?
What are Jokei I and what purpose did they serve?
guardians found on the outside of temples.
Describe the design of a Jokei I.
exagerated exprssions wood popular medium polychrome
Who was in charge of leading the reconstruction of Buddhist temples during the Kamakura period?
Describe the Unkei style as seen in the Great Amida Buddha (Daibutsu).
Describe the key elements (content and formal) of the Kumano Mandala.
kumano nachi- waterfall
hayatama shrine (new shrine) nara river
nimasu shrine (original/mountains)
Why is Honji Suijaku important to the creation of a Shinto/Buddhist temple?
original ground, manifest trace
What is a Bangaku and No and what 2 forms of performance do they represent?
How do the formal elements of the Burning of Sanjo Palace enhance its content?
What elements did the Muromachi painters borrow from other groups?
Describe Shin and Hatsuboku as seen in Sesshu's paintings.
What is Fusuma?
Describe the style of the Kano school.
What are the key elements of a Zen garden?
How are you supposed to interact with a Zen garden?
Sit in front of the garden and concetrate on the objects in the garden
Describe the Cha No Yu. (use at least 3 terms in your answer).
What is the purpose of a Cha No Yu?
Describe tomo-e design?
What are the 3 Rimpa styles?
Why is the Edo period called the Golden Age of Japanese Art?
Describe the western elements of a Japanese Castle.
Describe the interior of a Japanese Castle.
What changes occured in gate design from the Momoyama to Edo periods?
What word can be used to describe the design of the Katsura detached palace?
What are the 3 painting styles of the Momoyama and Edo periods?
Describe the decorative style (origins, colors, formal elements)
What Shinto elements are incorporated into Korin's Irises?
How does the Naturalistic style differ from the Decorative style?
How does the Bunjinga/Nanga style differ from the previous 2?
What is Ukiyo-e?
-Red light district
What are Rakuchu Rakugai Zu?
What was the favored subject of the Ukiyo-e painters?
What changes did Moronobu introduce to the printmaking process?
What is registration?
What is a pillar print?
What is uki-e?
What is Nishiki-e?
Numerous color blocks
Why were Geisha girls a popular subject?
Describe the formal elements of Utamaro's series (10 Beauties).
What is an Ogiya?
House of Fans (Brothel)
What are Kabuki?
Why did Hokusai do a series of work representing Mt. Fuji?
What does Mt. Fuji symbolize?
How do the styles of Hokusai and Hiroshige differ?
Hokusai's images have more expression
FOR ALL ARTISTS LISTED AS "CONTEMPORARY" covered in class note media, formal elements and message.