COM 100 Final

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COM 100 Final
2010-12-12 18:16:49
Final Communication

Final review for COM 100
Show Answers:

  1. Horizontal Communication
    Communication with peers
  2. Downward Communication
    Communication with subordinates
  3. Upward Communication
    Communication with superiors
  4. Assimilation
    The communicative, behavioral, and cognitive processes that influence individuals to join, identify with, become integrated into, and (occasionally) exit an organization
  5. 3 Types of Organizational Dilemmas
    • 1- Emotion labor
    • 2- Stress and burnout
    • 3- work-life conflict
  6. Emotion Labor
    The emotions displayed when an organization expects or requires workers to display particular feelings
  7. Burnout
    A chronic condition that results from the accumulation of daily stress, which manifests itself in a very specific set of characteristics, including exhaustion, cynicism, and ineffectiveness
  8. Work-life Conflict
    The difficulties individuals and families face as they try to balance job and home responsibilities
  9. Bullying
    Repeated hostile behaviors that are or appear to be intended to harm parties unable to defend themselves
  10. % of American workers who experience bullying
  11. Rhetor
    • A person or institution that addresses a large audience
    • The originator of a communication message but not necessarily the one delivering it
  12. Artistic Proofs
    Artistic skills of a retor that influence effectiveness
  13. Ethos
  14. 3 Types of Artistic Proofs
    • Ethos
    • Pathos
    • Logos
  15. Aristotle's criteria for gaining credibility
    • Good sense
    • moral character
    • good will
  16. Most important Artistic Proof
  17. Media
    A channel for communication
  18. Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC)
    The exchanges of messages carried through an intervening system of digital electronic storage and transmitted between two or more people
  19. Media Richness
    The potential information-carrying capacity of a communication medium
  20. Social Presence
    Degree of psychological closeness or immediacy engendered by various media
  21. Work Relationships: Monitoring
    The use of web-based security cameras and other tracking systems to monitor employee email and internet activity inside and outside of the office.
  22. 3 Basic Relationship Types
    • Traditonal
    • Seperate
    • Independant
  23. Traditional Relationship Type
    • Men do typical men tasks/work
    • Women do typical at home work and childcare
  24. Separates Relationship Type
    Traditional in theory, but couples are not as interdependant
  25. Independent Relationship Type
    Everything is negotiated. Individuals in couples do many things on their own. Do not "need" to be together often.
  26. Most conflicting Relationship Type
  27. Attunment
    • How tuned in to each other you are. \
    • How well you get along.
    • Your ability to be responsive to your partners emotional state.
  28. The 3X Rule
    If you fight about something more than 3 times and it's not solved, then you really are just fighting over power.
  29. 4 Points of Managing Power
    • The Hidden Dimension
    • The 3X Rule
    • Who will be in control?
    • Let your partner make their own decisions
  30. 8 Positive Communication Acts
    • Show interest
    • Be affectionate
    • Show you care
    • Be appreciative
    • Be accepting
    • Joke around
    • Share your joy
    • Be empathic
  31. Face Support
    Helping to maintain/improve your partners public image and identity by engaging in complimenting behaviors
  32. Face Threatening
    Degrading/teasing your partner in any way that weakens their public image or identity
  33. 5 Negative effects of Inequitable Divison of Domestic Labor
    • Feelings of frustration, anger, guilt
    • Increased conflict
    • Stress and burnout
    • Poor health
    • Relationship deterioration
  34. Over-Performers: Equalizing the division of domestic labor
    • Avoid repetively performing a tast that you don't want to own
    • Request a task to be performed (and avoid resentment)
    • Avoid critiquing others' performance
    • Express gratitude
  35. Under-Performers: Equalizing the division of Domestic Labor
    • Recognize partner's lower threshold
    • Perform a task before it seems to need to be done
    • Create a schedule for the task performance
    • Strive for competence
    • Recognize that the task will eventually need to be performed
    • Express gratitude
  36. 4 Factors that Contribute to Inequitable Divisions of Domestic Labor
    • Individual Characteristics
    • Dyadic Characteristics
    • Social/Cultural Characteristics
    • Communication Patterns
  37. 2 Individual Characteristics towards Domestic Labor
    • Threshold Level
    • Biology- Evolutionary vs. Biosocial
  38. Threshold Level
    One's tolerance level for tasks left undone
  39. 2 Dyadic Characteristics towards Domestic Labor
    • Self Organizing
    • Economics of Gratitude
  40. Self-Organizing
    The process by which interactions between individuals produce patterns of behavior
  41. Economics of Gratitude
    When individuals offer each other "gifts" by doing something beyone what is expected
  42. 3 Social/Cultural characteristics towards Domestic Labor
    • Gender Socialization
    • Gender Identity
    • Gender Strategy
  43. Gender Socialization
    • Serves to teach children what tasks each sex performs
    • Develops different competencies in boys and girls
  44. Gender Identity
    Individuals perform household tasks to communicate theirgendered identies
  45. Gender Strategy
    Baseline against which one determines whether an offering is a gift or a cost, which in turn determines whether one responds with appreciation or displeasure.
  46. Communication Patterns towards Domestic Labor: What NOT to do
    • Under-Performers:
    • Argue that "it doesn't bother me, so I shoulddn't have to do it."
    • See your performance as a gift

    • Over-Performers:
    • Complain about partner's performance
    • Expect partner to meet your threshold levels
  47. 6 Aspects of Assimilation
    • Training
    • Mentoring
    • Information giving/seeking
    • Relationship development
    • Role negotiation
    • Resistance
  48. Metamorphosis
    The final stage of the socialization process during which employees come to see themselves as members of the organization, and colleagues see them this way as well
  49. 3 Stages of Organizational Assimilation
    • Anticipatory Socialization
    • Encounter
    • Metamorphosis
  50. Anticipatory Socialization
    Activities and experiences that ocur before an individual enters an organization but that later assist in the assimilation process
  51. Encounter Stage
    The stage in the assimilation process during which individuals learn the norms, expectations, and practices of the organization and begin to accept and adapt to them
  52. 6 Examples of Public Communication
    • Speeches
    • Newspapers
    • Magazines
    • Television
    • Radio
    • Email
    • (Anything that is addressed to the public)
  53. 4 Reasons to Study Rhetoric
    • It helps us understand how and what we know about the world
    • It helps us better understand our culture
    • It helps us better evaluate public messages
    • It helps us become better communicators
  54. 4 Democratic Functions of Rhetoric
    • Reaffirming Cultural Values
    • Increasing Democratic Participation
    • Bringing About Justice
    • Prompting Social Change
  55. Rhetorical Events
    • Events that arrise that need response.
    • Provide insight into the ways meaning is tructured and cultural values affirmed
  56. Deliberative Rhetoric
    Argues what a society should do in the future
  57. Forensic Rhetoric
    • Rhetoric focused on past events.
    • Used in courtrooms
  58. Rhetoric Prompting Social Change
    • Concerned with social justice/Rights
    • Bringing about social change through social movements
  59. 4 Effects of media violence on children under age 8
    • Increased aggressiveness and antisocial behavior
    • Increased fear of becoming victims
    • Less sensitivity to violence and to vicitms of violence
    • Increased appetite for more violence in entertainment and in real life
  60. Agenda-Setting Capacity
    The power of media coverage to influence individuals' view of the world
  61. Selective Exposure: Media
    The idea that people seek media messages and/or interpret media texts in ways that confirm their beliefs and, conversly, resist or avoid messages that challenge their beliefs
  62. 4 General uses and Gratifications that audiences have for media texts
    • Information
    • Personal Identity
    • Integration and Social Interaction
    • Entertainment
  63. Uses and Gratifications Theory: Information
    • Audiences want to learn from some media presentations
    • Ex: News
  64. Uses and Gratifications Theory: Personal Identity
    • The idea that viewers may use media messages to affirm some aspect of their personal identiy
    • Ex: Mothers, consumers, political conservatives
  65. Uses and Gratifications Theory: Integrationa nd Social Interaction
    • Underscores the role that media can play in helping people connect with others
    • Ex: Sports or events on a soap opera
  66. Uses and Gratifications Theory: Entertainment
    The use of media for pleasure, or the desire simply to be entertained
  67. Cultivation Theory
    Idea that long-term immersion in a media enviornment leads to "cultivation," or enculturation, into shared beliefs about the world
  68. Status-Leveling
    a major impact of online communication that gives subordinates far more access to high-level administrators that ever before.
  69. 4 types of Successful Supervisor-Subordinate communication
    • Openness
    • Supportiveness
    • Motivation
    • Empowerment
  70. Successful Supervisor-Subordinate Communication: Openness
    A state in which communicators are willing to share their ideas as well as listen to others in a way that avoids conveying negative or disconfirming feedback
  71. Successful Supervisor-Subordinate Communication:
    Refers to supervisors who provide their subordinates with access to information and resources
  72. Successful Supervisor-Subordinate Communication:
    Supervisors are able to motivate their subordinates so that they feel personally invested in accomplishing a specific activity or goal
  73. Successful Supervisor-Subordinate Communication:
    Supervisor's ability to increase employees' feelings of self-efficacy
  74. Role Conflict
    • Arises when employees find it difficult to meet conflicting or incompatible job demands
    • Ex: Managers told to treat employees fairly but meet tight production deadlines
  75. Evolutionary Theory of Domestic Labor
    • Suggests that women's keener sense of smell and greater attention to detail made them well adapted to household laber.
    • Women who were more attentive to cleanliness and home safety issues likely lived long enough to reproduce and were more likely to rear children who survived to adulthood and who could then reproduce and further this genetic legacy
  76. Biosocial Theory of Domestic Labor
    Argues that women's relegation to household labor occurred through the sexual division of labor due to their maternal role- over time women became more aware of and sensitive to cleanliness in the household.
  77. Self-Organizing Social Networks
    Social groups that arise when self-organizing systems repeat the same decisions and actions of individuals within the network
  78. Sensmaking and Communicating Theory
    Suggests that both partners need to understand and communicate about the underlyig dynamics of labor allocation and that both need to change their behaviors since the performance of domestic labor is part of a socal organizing system created by all participants.
  79. Domestic Labor
    The performance of inside and outside tasks related to home and family maintenance
  80. How TO negotiate the divison of Domestic Labor
    • Avoid Blame:
    • - Accusations don't lead to behavioral changes
    • -They really dont see it... (High Tolerance Level)
    • Negotiate labor divison before cohabitating
    • Continue to discuss and negotiate labor throughout your relationship
  81. Potential effects of poor communication tactics
    • Can end relationships
    • Result in unemployment
    • Lessen Self-Esteem
  82. Potential benefits from good communication skills
    • Become more effect at work
    • Develop and maintain close relationships
    • Participate in your community
    • Change the way you see yourself
  83. Human Communication
    A process in which people generate meaning through the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages
  84. Symbol
    Something that represents something else and conveys meaning
  85. Iconic Signs
    Signs that represent a thing itself and always bear some resemblance to the object to which they refer
  86. Indexical Signs
    • Signs taht reveal something beyond the thing itself
    • Ex: Smoke is an indexical sign of fire
  87. Content Meaning
    The concrete meaning of the message, and the meanings suggested by or associated with the message and the emotions triggered by it
  88. Relationship Meaning
    What a message conveys about the relationship between parties
  89. Components of Human Communication: Setting
    The physical surroundings of a communication event
  90. Components of Human Communication: Participants
    The people interacting during communication
  91. Components of Human Communication: Message Creation
    Transmitting ideas and emotions via signs and symbols
  92. Components of Human Communication: Channel
    The means through which a message is transmitted
  93. Components of Human Communication: Noise
    Any stimulus that can interfere with, or degrade, the quality of a message
  94. Components of Human Communication: Feedback
    The response to a message
  95. 6 Components of Human Communication
    • Setting
    • Participants
    • Message creation
    • Channel
    • Noise
    • Feedback
  96. Encoding
    Taking ideas and converting them into messages
  97. Decoding
    Recieving a message and interpreting its meaning
  98. Ethics
    Standards of what is right and wrong, good and bad, moral and immoral
  99. Communication Ethics
    The stardards of right and wrong that one applies to messages that are sent and recieved
  100. Ethical Obligations of Receivers
    • Listen mindfully
    • Have reasoned skepticism
    • Give healthy feedback
  101. Listening Mindfully
    • Paying close attention to what is being communicated and listening both for what is said and what is left unsaid
    • *When you must form opinions or make decisions based on information you recieve*
  102. Reasoned Skepticism
    The balance of open-mindedness and critical attitude needed when evaluating others' messages
  103. Healthy Feedback
    The honest and ethical responses recievers provide to the messages of others
  104. Privacy
    A message that other parties have no right to expect access to it
  105. Secrecy
    Occurs when other parties might legitimately expect access to a message that is withheld
  106. Authentic Communication
    Communication that is open and free from pretense.
  107. Inauthentic Communication
    Communication that is closed, attempts to manipulatie the interaction or other communicatiors, and denies those with a legitimate interest in the issue the right to communicate.
  108. Absolutism
    The belief that there is a single correct moral standard that holds for everyone, everywhere, everytime.
  109. Relativsm
    The belief that moral behavior varies among individuals, group, and cultures, and across situations
  110. Paradigm
    Belief system that represents a particular worldview
  111. Theory
    A set of statements that explains a particular phenomenon
  112. 4 Contemporary Approaches to the Study of Communication
    • Social Science (Behaviorism)
    • Interpretive (Humanism)
    • Critical
    • Postmodern
  113. Humanism
    A systemo f thought that celebrates human nature and its potential
  114. Elocution
    The mechanics of public speaking, including proper pronounciation, posture, and grammar
  115. Methodology
    An accepted set of methods for developing new knowledge about a subject
  116. Social Science Approach
    Contemporary term for the behaviorist approach
  117. Interpretive Approach
    Contemporary term for humanistic (rhetorical) study
  118. Naturalistic
    Relating to everyday, real-life situations, such as a classroom, cafe, or shopping mall
  119. Quantitative Methods
    Methods that convert data to numerical indicators, and then analyze these numbers using statistics to establish relationships among the concepts
  120. Qualitative Methods
    Methods in which researchers study naturally ocurring communication rather than assembling data and converting it to numbers
  121. Ethnographic
    Relating to studies in which researchers actively engage with participants
  122. Rhetorical Analysis
    Used by researchers to examine tets or public speeches as they occur in society with the aim of interpreting textual meaning
  123. Critical Approach
    An approach used not only to understand human behavior but ultimately to change society
  124. Textual Approach
    Used to analyze cultural "products" such as media and public speeches
  125. Postmodernism
    A broad intellectualand social movement of the late twentieth century
  126. Modernism
    The belief that through rational thinking, humans can advance and discover universal truth
  127. Postmodern Approach
    An approach in which reality is subjective, and power is an important issue
  128. Social Science Approach: Goal of Research
    To describe, predict and explain behavior
  129. Social Science Approach: View of Reality
    External and describable
  130. Social Science Approach: View of Human Behavior
    Complex but predictable
  131. Social Science Approach: Primary Methods
    • Quantitative analysis of surveys
    • Observation
    • Experiments
    • Focused interviews
  132. Social Science Approach: Contributions
    Identifies communication paterns and associations among variables
  133. Social Science Approach: Limitations
    Does not focus on the influence of power or societal forces
  134. Interpretive Approach: Goal of Research
    To desribe, explain, and understand behavior in context
  135. Interpretive Approach: View or Reality
  136. Interpretive Approach: View of Human Behavior
    Creative and voluntary
  137. Interpretive Approach: Primary Methods
    Oualitative analysis of rhetorical texts and ethnographic data (such as participant observation, observation, interviews)
  138. Interpretive Approach: Contributions
    Emphasizes in-dept study of communication
  139. Interpretive Approach: Limitations
    • Limited number of participants
    • Does not focus on power or societal forces
  140. Critical Approach: Goal of Research
    To describe, explain, and understand society in order to affect change
  141. Critical Approach: View of Reality
    Subjective and material
  142. Critical Approach: View of Human Nature
  143. Critical Approach: Primary Methods
    • Textual Analysis
    • Media Analysis
  144. Critical Approach: Contributions
    • Emphasizes power relations in communication interactions
    • Recognizes societal impacts on communication
  145. Critical Approach: Limitations
    Does not focus on face-to-face communication
  146. Postmodern Approach: Goal of Research
    To understand the contemporary human condition
  147. Postmodern Approach: View of Reality
  148. Postmodern Approach: View of Human Behavior
  149. Postmodern Approach: Primary Methods
    • Textual analysis
    • Participant observation
  150. Postmodern Approach: Contributions
    Challenges assumptions about gender, race, ethnicity, and other social categories
  151. Postmodern Approach: Limitations
    • Does not focus on face-to-face communication
    • May be viewed as pessimistic and imprctical
  152. Reflected Appraisals
    The idea that people's self-images arise primarily from the ways that others view them and from the many messages they have recieved from others about who they are
  153. Lookng-glass Self
    The idea that self-image results from the images others reflect back to an individual
  154. Particular Others
    The important people in an individual's life whose opinions and behavior influence the various aspects of identity
  155. Generalized Other
    The collection of roles, rules, norms, beliefs, and attitudes endorsed by the community in which a person lives
  156. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    When an individual expects something to occur, the expectation increases the likelihood that it will
  157. Self-concept
    The understanding of one's unique characteristics as well as the similarities to, and differences from, others
  158. Stereotype Threat
    Process in which reminding individuals of stereotypical expectations regarding important identities can impace their performance
  159. Self-esteem
    • Part of one's self-concept
    • Arises out of how one percieves and interprets reflected appreaisals and social comparisons
  160. Performance of identity
    The process or means by which we show the wold who we think we are
  161. Enacting identies
    Performing scripts deemed proper for particular identies
  162. Role Expectations
    The expectation that onew ill perform in a particular way because of the social role occupied
  163. Identity
    Who a person is: composed of individual and social categories a person identifies with, as well as the categories taht others identify with that person
  164. 8 Primary Identity Categories
    • Racial Identity
    • Gender Identity
    • Ethnic Identity
    • Age Identity
    • Natuional Identity
    • Religious Identity
    • Sexual Identity
    • Social Class Identity
  165. Racial Identity
    Iddentification with a particular racial group
  166. Multiracial Identity
    One who self-identifies as having more than one racial identity
  167. National Identity
    A person's citzenship
  168. Ethnic Identity
    • Identification with a particular group with which one shares some or all of these characteristics:
    • National or tribal affiliation
    • Religious beliefs
    • Language
    • and/or cultural and traditional origins and backgrounds
  169. Gender Identity
    How and to what extent one identifies with the social construction of masculinity and feminity
  170. Sexual Identity
    Which of the various categories of sexuality one identifies with: sexual orientation
  171. Age Identity
    A combination of self-perception of age along with what others understand that age to mean
  172. Social Class Identity
    An informal ranking of people in a culture based on their income, occupation, education, dwelling, child-rearing habits, and other factors.
  173. Mutable
    Subject to change
  174. Gender
    The cultural differences between masculinity and feminity
  175. Sex
    The biological differences between males and females
  176. 2 Examples of Secondary Identity Categories
    • Occupation
    • Marital Status
    • (Changable over the life span and from situation to situation)
  177. 3 Primary components of Perception Process
    • Selection
    • Roganization
    • Interpretation
  178. Selection
    The process of choosing which sensory information to focus on
  179. Organization
    The process by which one recognizes what sensory input represents
  180. Interpretation
    The act of assigning meaning to sensory information
  181. Selective attention
    Consciously or unconsciously attending to just a narrow range of the full array of sensory information available
  182. 5 Types of Sensory Factors
    • Intensity
    • Size
    • Contrast
    • Repetition
    • Movement
  183. Organization: 2 Primary Cognitive Principles
    • Congitive Representation
    • Categorization
  184. Organization: Cognitive Representation
    The abilit to form mental models of the world.
  185. Schema
    Cognitive structure that represents an individual's understanding of a concept or person
  186. Prototype
    An idealized Schema
  187. Planning
    • The sequence of actions one develops to attain particular goals
    • Ex: Planning the request for a bank loan
  188. Script
    • A relatively fixed sequence of events that functions as a guide or template for communication or behavior
    • Ex: What you usually say when you meet a new person
  189. Organization: Categorization
    A cognitive process used to organize information by placing it into larger groupings of information
  190. Perception: 2 Categories of Interpretation
    • Frames
    • Attribution
  191. Stereotyping
    Creating schemas that overgeneralize attributes of a specific group
  192. Frame
    • A structure that shapes how people interpret their perceptions
    • Peoples' view of the world through interprettive frames that guide how they make sense of events
  193. 3 Types of Cognitive Representations (Maps)
    • Schemas
    • Plans
    • Scripts
  194. Label
    • A categorization method
    • A name assigned to a category based on one's perception of the category
  195. Attribution Theory
    Explanation of the process we use to judge our own and others' ehavior
  196. Attributional Bias
    The tendency to attribute one's own negative behavior to external causes and one's positive actions to internal states
  197. Self-Serving Bias
    The tendency to give one's self more credit than is due when good things happen and to accept too little responsibility for those things that go wrong
  198. Fundamental Attribution Error
    The tendency to attribute others' negative behavior to internal causes and their positive behaviors to external causes
  199. Constructs
    Categories people develop to help them organize information
  200. Cognitive Complexity
    • The degree to which a person's constructs are detailed, involved, or numerous
    • Ex: When you tend to have many ways of explainging and understanding interpersonal interactions
  201. 3 Personality Characteristics
    • Emotional State
    • Outlook
    • Knowledge
  202. Ethnocentrism
    The tendency to view one's own group as the standart against which all other groups are judged
  203. Prejudice
    Experiencing aversive or negative feelings toward a group as a whole or toward an individual because she or he belongs to a group
  204. Ego-Defensive Function
    The role prejudice plays in protecting individuals' sense of sel-worth
  205. Value-Expressive Function
    The role played by prejudice in allowing people to view their own values, norms, and cultural practices as appropriate and correct
  206. 2 Functions of Prejudice
    • Ego-Defensive Function
    • Value-Expressive Function
  207. 4 Influences on Perception
    • Physical Abilities
    • Schemas/Constructs
    • Cognitive Complexity
    • Interpersonal constructs
  208. Locus of Control
    The fundamental attribution we make in deciding whether the cause of an individual's behavior is internal or external
  209. 7 Functions of Language
    • Instrumental
    • Regulatory
    • Informative
    • Heuristic
    • Interactional
    • Personal Language
    • Imaginative
  210. Functions of Language: Instrumental
    • Use of language to obtain what you need or desire
    • Ex: Sending out invitations to a dinner to get people to come
  211. Functions of Language: Regulatory
    • Use of language to control or regulate the behaviors of others
    • Ex: Asking someone to bring something specific over to dinner
  212. Functions of Language: Informative
    • Use of language to communicate information or report facts
    • Ex: Including the date and time on an invitation
  213. Functions of Language: Heuristic
    • Use of language to aquirre knowledge and understanding
    • Ex: Asking peopl if they are available at a certain date so you know if you can invite them to dinner
  214. Functions of Language: Interactional
    • Use of language to establish and define social relationships
    • Ex: Engaging in behavior that helps maintain relationships when socializing
  215. Functions of Language: Personal language
    • Use of language to express individuality
    • Ex: Expressing your sense of humor in an interaction
  216. Functions of Language: Imaginative
    • Use of language to express oneself artisticaly or creatively
    • Ex: Art, Writing, Poetry, Drama etc.
  217. 4 Components of Language
    • Phonology
    • Syntax
    • Semantics
    • Pragmatics
  218. Components of Language: Phonology
    • The study of sounds that compose individual languages and how those sounds communicate meaning
    • Ex: vowels, consonants, and dipthongs (th)
  219. Components of Language: Syntax
    • The rules that govern word order
    • Ex: Sentence Structure- "The young boy hit the old man" vs. "The old man hit the young boy"
  220. Components of Language: Semantics
    The study of meaning
  221. Components of Language: Pragmatics
    Field of study that epmphasies how language is used in specific situations to accomplish goals
  222. 3 Units of study in Pragmatics
    • Speech Acts
    • Conversational Rules
    • Contextual Rules
  223. Denotative Meaning
    The dictionary, or literal, meaning of a word
  224. Connotative Meaning
    • The affective or interpretive meanings attached to a word
    • Ex: Wise- Implies an older person with long experiene
  225. Speech Act Theory
    • Branch of pragmatics that suggests that when people communicate, they do not just say things, they also do things with their words.
    • Ex: Betting on a sports game. Saying and physically doing something with those words at the same time
  226. Converstational Rules
    • Branch of Pragmatics that govern the way in which communicators organize converstaion.
    • Ex: Waiting your turn to speak
    • Ex: Answering a question when someone asks you
  227. Contextual Rules
    • Branch of Pragmatics that studies the use of language depending on the communication situation
    • Ex: You wouldnt discuss the same things at a funeral as you would at a bar.
  228. 5 Influences on Verbal Communication
    • Gender
    • Age
    • Regionality
    • Ethnicity/Race
    • Education/Occupation
  229. Influences on Verbal Communication: Gender
    Growing up mal or female may influence the way you communicate in some situations, because men and women are socialized to communicate in specific ways
  230. Dialect
    A variation of a language distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronounciation
  231. Lexical Choice
  232. Influences on Verbal Communication: Age
    • Age plays a factor in language use mainly through word choice
    • Ex: bad, hot, phat, righteous, "the cooties"
  233. Influences on Verbal Communication: Regionality
    • Geographical location strongly influences people's language use.
    • Ex: Saying "Soda", "Pop", or "Coke" based on where you are from
  234. Cohort Effect
    The influence of shared characteristics of a group that was born and reared in the same general period
  235. Jargon
    The specialized terms that develop in many professions
  236. Influences on Verbal Communication: Ethnicity/Race
    • Using a language as a second language can influence syntax, accent, and word choice
    • Ex: Spanish adjective sentence structure is different from English.
  237. Influences on Verbal Communication: Education/Occupation
    • Education: Affects dialect in part because many people from different areas are brought together on one campus, and university schooling can develop specific vocabularies
    • Occupation: Jargon can affect language use and understanding
  238. Nominalists
    Those who argue that any idea can be expressed in any language and that the structure and vocabulary of the language do not influence the speaker's perception of the world
  239. Relativists
    Those wo argue that language serves not only as a way for us to voice our ideas but "is itself the shaper of the ideas, the guide for the individual's mental activity"
  240. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    • Idea that the language people speak determines the way they see the world
    • (A relativist perspective)
  241. Cocultural Theory
    Explores the role of power in daily interactions
  242. 4 Stages of Listening
    • Sensing
    • Understanding
    • Evaluating
    • Responding
  243. Stages of Listening: Sensing
    • The stage of listening most people refer to as "hearing"
    • When listeners pick up the sound waves directed towards them
  244. Stages of Listening: Understanding
    Interpreting the messages associated ith sounds or what the sounds mean
  245. Stages of Listening: Evaluating
    Assessing your reaction to a message
  246. Stages of Listening: Responding
    Showing others how you regard their message
  247. 3 Types of Listening
    • Rational Listening
    • Relational Listening
    • Conscious Listening
  248. Barriers to Listening: 3 Psychological Barriers
    • Boredom
    • Preoccupation
    • Conflicting listening objectives
  249. Barriers to Listening: 3 Physical Barriers
    • Noisy environment
    • Physical Discomforts
    • Hearing Impairments
  250. Types of Listening: Rational Listening
    • Listeninga s thinking
    • (Predominant Listening Type)
    • Ex: Not only listening to the content of a reply, but also scrutinizing nonverbal behavior to determine truthfulness
  251. Types of Listening: Relational Listening
    • Listening to understand how the other person feels
    • Ex: Being openminded when listeing, listening even if you don't want to listen, and just being there to listen to someone who is in need
  252. Types of Listening: Conscious Listening
    • Being in tune with the world around you so that you can understand yourself and society
    • Reflects the ability to synthesize rational and relational listening in order to create a comprehensive understanding of others
  253. Disconfirming Communication
    • Comments that reject or invalidate a positive or negative self-image of our conversational partners
    • Ex: Saying the test was easy when someone gets a good grade, instead of implying that they worked hard or are smart
  254. Confirming Communication
    • Comments that validate positive self-images of others
    • Ex: Complimenting someone on working hard when they get a good grade
  255. "I" Statements
    • A type of disconfirming message that involves making negative generalizations about others conveyed through 3 parts:
    • -The other person's behavior
    • -Your feelings about that behavior
    • -The consequences the other's behavior has for you

    Ex:"When you criticize my appearance (behavior), I feel unloved (feeling), and I respond by withdrawing from you (consequence).
  256. 7 Ways to Improve Listening Skills/Become a more Ethical Listener
    • Talk less
    • Keep an open mind
    • Focus on the speaker
    • Provide nonverbal feedback
    • Provide verbal feedback
    • Empathize
    • Monitor how you are listening
  257. Nonverbal Behavior
    • All the nonverbal actions people perform
    • Ex: Blinking, scratching an arm, etc.
  258. Nonverbal communication
    • Nonverbal behavior that has symbolic meaning
    • Ex: Coughing to catch someone's attention, yawn because you are tired, etc.
  259. Nonverbal Codes
    Distinct, organized means of expression that consists of symbols and rules for their use
  260. 5 Aspects of Nonverbal Codes
    • Kenesics
    • Paralinguistics
    • Time and Space
    • Haptics
    • Appearand and Artifacts
  261. Nonverbal Codes: Kinesics
    Nonverbal communication sent by the body, including gestures, posture, movement, facial expressions, and eye behavior
  262. Kinesics: Gestures
    Nonverbal communication made with part of the body, including actions such as pointing, waving, or holding up a hand to direct people's attention
  263. Illustratiors
    • Signals taht accompandy speech to clarify or emphasize the verbal message
    • Ex: Holding your hands apart to indicate the size of a fish that you caught
  264. Emblems
    • Gestures that stand for a specific verbal meaning
    • Raising one's hand in class to indicate that you wish to speak
  265. Adaptors
    • Gesutres used to manage emotions
    • Ex: Tapping a pencil, twirling one's hair
  266. Regulators
    • Gestures used to control conversation
    • Ex: Holding up your hand during a conversation to indicate that the other person sould wait to talk
  267. 4 Types of Gestures
    • Illusrators
    • Emplems
    • Adaptors
    • Regulators
  268. Immediacy
    • How close or involved people appear to be with each other
    • Ex: When people like someone they tend to orient their bodies in the other person's direction, lean towards them, etc.
  269. Relaxation
    The degree of tension displayed by one's body
  270. 2 Categories of Kinesics
    • The body- Gestures, immediacy, relaxation
    • The face- Facial expressions
  271. Nonverbal Codes: Paralinguistics
    • All aspects of spoken language except the words themselves
    • Ex: Rate, pitch, volume, stress
  272. 2 Types of Paralinguistics
    • Voice Qualities
    • Vocalizations
  273. Paralinguistics: Voice Qualities
    Qualities such as speed, pitch, rythm, vocal range, and articulation that make up the "music" of the human voice
  274. Paralinguistics: Vocalizations
    • The sounds that do not have the structure of language
    • Ex: uh-huh, uh, ah, er
  275. Nonverbal Codes: Time and Space
    The study of how people use time (Chronemics) and proximity (Proxemics) to convey messages
  276. Chronemics
    • The study of the way people use time as a message
    • Includes issues such as punctuality and the amount of time people spend with each other.
  277. Proxemics
    The study of how people use spatial cues, including interpersonal distance, territoriality, and other space relationships, to communicate
  278. Monochronically
    Engaging in one task or behavior at a time
  279. Polychronically
    • Engaging in multiple activities simultaneously
    • Ex: Multitasking
  280. Proxemics: 4 Spheres/categories of Space that humans use
    • Intimate Distance
    • Personal Distance
    • Social Distance
    • Public Distance
  281. Inditmate Distance
    • 0-18''
    • Displaying physical and psychological intimacy
    • Ex: lovemaking, hugging, comforting, telling secrets
  282. Personal Distances
    • 18"-4ft
    • The space we use when interacting with friends and acquaintances
  283. Social Distance
    • 4-12ft
    • Distance most Americans use when they interact with unfamiliar others
    • Ex: standing in line, job interviews, talking to a sales clerk, etc.
  284. Public Distance
    • 12-25ft
    • Distance most appropriate for public ceremonies such as lectures and performances, although greater distances can be maintained between public figures (President, celebrities, etc)
  285. Nonverbal Codes: Haptics
    The study of the communicative function of touch
  286. Haptics: 5 Types of Touch
    • Professional/Functional Touch
    • Social-polite Touch
    • Friendship Touch
    • love-intimate Touch
    • Demand Touching
  287. Professional Touch
    • Type of touch used by certain workers as part of their livelihood.
    • (Least intimate type of touch)
    • Ex: hairstylists, dentists, hospice workers' touching clients to do their jobs
  288. Social-polite Touch
    • Thouch that is part of daily interaction in the Unite States; it is more intimate tha professional touch, but is still impersonal
    • Ex: shaking hands
  289. Friendship Touch
    • Touch that is more intimate than social touch and usually conveys warmth, closeness, and caring
    • Ex: brief hugs, a hand on the shoulder etc.
  290. Love-intimate Touch
    • The touch most often used with one's romantic partners and family
    • Ex: Kisses, long hugs
  291. Demand Touching
    • A type of touch used to establish dominance and power
    • Ex: used at work (in hierarchial settings)
    • Ex: A supervisor standing behind a subordinate and leaning over to provide directioins, placing his/her hand on the subordinate's shoulder
  292. Nonverbal Codes: Appearance and Artifacts
    The use of clothing, jewelry, and body stature to convey nonverbal messages
  293. Artifacts
    The clothing and other accessories a person uses to convey a nonverbal message
  294. Functions of Nonverbal Messages
    • Communicating Information
    • Regulating Interaction
    • Exressing and Managing Intimacy
    • Establishing Social Control
    • Signaling Service-Task Functions
  295. Functions of Nonverbal Messages: Communicating Information
    Using nonverbal behaviors to help clarify verbal messages and reveal attitudes and moods
  296. Functions of Nonverbal Messages: Regulating Information
    • Using nonverbal behaviors to help manage turn-taking during conversation
    • Ex: To reveal that you are finished with your turn speaking, you can drop your volume and pitch, lean back, look away, nonverbally "show" that you are done talking
  297. Functions of Nonverbal Messages: Espressing and Managing Intimacy
    • Using nonverbal behaviors to help convey attraction and closeness
    • Ex: being on a date and leaning in towards your partner, gazing into their eyes, etc.
  298. Functions of Nonverbal Messages: Establishing Social Control
    • Using nonverbal behavior to exercise influence over other people
    • Ex: Smiling at someone you want to do a favor for you, glaring at noisy people in a library, etc.
  299. Functions of Nonverbal Messages: Service-Task Function
    • Using nonverbal behvior to signal close involvement between people in impersonal relationship and contexts
    • Ex: Physicians, massage therapists, and tailors engaging in very itimate touch as part of their profesions etc.
  300. 6 Ways Prejudice is Communicated Nonverbally
    • Not long at people when we tlak to them
    • Not smiling at peole when they walk into the room or staring as if to say "what are you doing here" or stopping the conversation with a hush as they walk by
    • Not acknowledging people's presence or making them wait as if they weren't there
    • Not touching their skin when we give them something
    • Watching them closely to see what they're up to
    • Avoiding someone walking down the street, giving them wide berth or even crossing to the other side
  301. Intercultural Communication
    Communication that occurs in interactions between people who are culturally different
  302. Culture
    Learned patterns of perceptions, values, and behaviors shared by a group of people
  303. Culture Shock
    A feeling of disorientation and ciscomfort due to the lack of familiar environmental cues
  304. Reverse culture Shock
    Culture shock experienced by travelers upon returining to their home country
  305. Border-dwellers
    People who live betwen cultures and often experience contradictory cultural patterns
  306. 4 Types of Border-dwellers through Travel
    • Voluntary Short-term Travelers
    • Involuntary Short-term Travelers
    • Voluntary Long-term Travelers
    • Involuntary Long-term Travelers
  307. Voluntary short-term Travelers
    • People who are border dwellers by choice and for a limited time
    • Ex: study-abroad students, corporate personnel
  308. Voluntary Long-term Travelers
    • People who are border dweller by choice and for an extended time
    • Ex: Immigrants
  309. Involuntary Short-term Travelers
    • People who are border dwellers not by choie and only for alimited time
    • Ex: Refugees forced to move
  310. Involuntary Long-term Travelers
    • People who are border dwellers permanently butnot by choice
    • Ex: Those who relocate to escape war
  311. 3 Types of Border Dwellers
    • Through Travel
    • Through Socialization (Cocultural Groups)
    • Through Participation in an intercultural relationship
  312. 2 Types of challenges for Travelers in a new culture
    • Dealing with the psychological streess of being in an unfamiliar environment
    • Learning how to behave appropriately in the new culture (learning a new language), both verbally and nonverbally (nonverbal cues of that culture)
  313. Border Dwellers Through Socialization
    • people who grow up livin the the border between cultural groups.
    • Ex: Latinos, Asian Americans, African Americas who live in the predominantly White United States
  314. Border Dwellers Through Relationships
    People who have intimate partners whose cultural background differs from their own
  315. Cocultural Group
    A significant minority group within a dominant majority that does not share dominant group values or commmunication patterns
  316. Cocultural Theory
    Explores the role of power in daily interactions
  317. Cultural Values
    Beliefs that are so central to a cultural group that they are never questioned
  318. Encapsulated Marginal people
    People who feel disintegrated by having to shift cultures
  319. Constructive Marginal People
    People who thrive in border-dweller life, whicl recognizing its tremendous challenges
  320. Individualist Orientation
    • A value orientation that respects the autonomy and independence of individuals
    • Ex: children raised to live on their own by late adolescence. Parents expected to take care of themselves and not be a burden on the children when they age
  321. Collectivistic Orientation
    • A value orientation taht stresses the eneds of the group
    • Ex: The primary responsibility of the people is to maintain interdependence in family, work, and personal relationships.
  322. 6 Key Aspects of Cultural values
    • Individualistic vs.Collectivistic
    • Preferred Personality
    • View of Huan Nature
    • Human-Nature Value
    • Power Distribution
    • Long-Term vs. Short-Term Orientation
  323. Preferrerd Personality
    • A value orientation that expresses whether it is more important for a person to "do" or to "be"
    • Ex: "working to live" or "living to work"
  324. View of Human nature
    • A value orientation taht expresses whether humans are fundamentally good, evil, or a mixture
    • Ex: Innocent until proven guilty vs. punishment over rehabilitation
  325. Human-Nature Value orientation
    • The percieved relationship between humans and nature
    • Ex: Does man rule nature, or does nature rule man? Or should the two exist in harmony?
  326. Power Distance
    • A value orientation that refers to the extent to which less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a culture expect and accept an unequal distribution of power
    • Ex: Hierarchy vs befrending your superiors
  327. Long-Term vs. Short-Term Orientation
    The dimension of a society's value orientation that reflects its attitude toward virtue or truth
  328. Long-Term Orientation
    • A value orientation in which people stree the importance of virture
    • Polytheistic beliefs (more than one god)
  329. Short-Term Orientation
    • A value orientation that stresses the importance of possessing one fundamental truth
    • Monotheistic (belief in one God)
  330. Dialectic Approach
    Recognizes that things need not be percieved as either/or, but may be seen an both/and
  331. Dichotomous Thinking
    • Thinking in which things are percieved as "either/or"
    • Ex: Good or Bad, Big or Small, Right or Wrong
  332. 6 Intercultural Dialectics
    • Cultural-Individual
    • Personal-Contextual
    • Differences-Similarities
    • Static-Dynamic
    • History/Past-Present/Future
    • Privilege-Disadvantage
  333. Intercultural Dialectics: Personal-Contextual
    • Focuses on the importance of context or situation in intercultural communication.
    • In any intercultural encounter, both the individual and the situation are simultaneously important
  334. Intercultural Dialectics: Cultural-Individual
    • Emphasizes that some behaviors (such as way of relating to others) are determined by our culture while others are simpy idiosyncratic, or particular to us as individuals
    • Ex: Someone who twists their hair as they talk. (Personal preference, not a cultural norm)
  335. Intercultural Dialectics: Sifferences-Similarities
    Focuses on the idea that real, important differences exist between cultural groups, however, important commonalities exist as well.
  336. Intercultural Dialectics: Static-Dynamic
    • While some cultural patterns remain relatively stable and static for years, they also can undergo dynamic change
    • Ex: Many people get their idea of Indians as being like Pocahontas, living rural lives like they did centuries ago, even though the majority of Indians today live in urban areas
    • Requires that you recognize both traditional and contemporary realities of a culture
  337. Intercultural Dialectics: History/Past-Present/Future
    • Focuses on the present and the past.
    • Ex: One can not fully understand contemporary relations between Arabs and Jews, or Muslims and Christians without knowing something of their history.
  338. Intercultural Dialectics: Privilege-Disadvantage
    • Focuses on the fact that people can be simultaneously privileged and disadvantaged.
    • Ex: While Americans may be privileged in having more money and the luxury of travel, they can also feel vulnerable in foreign countries if they are ignorant of the local languages and custorms.
  339. 3 Ways to Improve Your Intercultural Communication Skills
    • Increase Motivation: Be willing to improve knowledge and skills
    • Increase your knowledge of self and others: Knowing yourself can help you better understand others. Know the background and values of people from other cultures
    • Avoid Stereotypes
  340. Importance of Studying Intercultural Communication
    • Increased knowledge and skill in intercultural communication can improve:
    • your business effectiveness
    • intergroup relation
    • self-awareness
  341. Influences on Relationship Development
    • Proximity: How close you are to others
    • Attractiveness: The appeal one person has for another based on physical appearance, personalities, and behavior
    • Similarity: The degree to which people share the same values, interests, and background
  342. Matching Hypothesis
    The tendency to develop relationships with people who are approximately as attractive as we are
  343. 6 Relationship Development Models
    • Social Penetration Theory
    • Knapp's Stage Model
    • Turning Point Model
    • Whirlwind Model
    • Friendship First Model
    • Dialectical Models
  344. Social Penetration Theory
    • A theory that proposes relationship dvelop through increases in self-disclosure
    • Self-Disclosure occurs across 3 dimensions:
    • Breadth
    • Depth
    • Frequency
  345. Social Penetration Theory: Breadth
    Describes thenumber of different topics dyads willingly discuss
  346. Social Penetration Theory: Depth
    How deep or personal communication exchanges are
  347. Social Penetration Theory: Frequency
    How often self-disclosure occurs
  348. 4 Stages of Social Penetration Theory
    • Orientation
    • Exploratory Affective Exchange
    • Affective Exchange
    • Stable Exchange
  349. Stages of Social Penetration Theory: Orientation
    The stae in which people first meet and engage in superficial communication
  350. Stages of Social Penetration Theory: Exploratory Affective Exchange
    The stage in which people increase the breadth of their communication
  351. Stages of Social Penetration Theory: Affective Exchange
    The stage in which people increse the breadth, depth, and frequency of their self-disclosure
  352. Stages of Social Penetration Theory: Stable Exchange
    The stage in which relational partners engage in the greatest breadth and depth of self-disclosure
  353. Knapp's Stage Model
    Model of relationship development that views relationships as occuring in "stages" and that focuses on how people communicate as relationships develop and decline
  354. Knapp's 5 Stages Leading to Commitment
    • Initiating: Both people behave so as to appear pleasant and likeable
    • Experimenting: Both people seek to learn about each other
    • Intensifying: Both people seek to increase intimacy and connectedness
    • Integrating: Both people portray themselves as a couple
    • Bonding: Stage characterized by public commitment
  355. Knapp's 5 Stages Leading to Termination/Seperation
    • Differentiating: Couples increase their interpersonal distance
    • Circomscribing: couples discuss safe topics
    • Stagnating: Couples try to prevent change
    • Avoiding: Couples try not to interact with each other
    • Terminating: Couples end the relationship
  356. Relational Trajectory Models
    Relationship development models that view relationship development as more variable than do stage models
  357. Turning Point Model
    A model of relationship development in which couples move both toward and away from commitment over the course of their relationship
  358. Dialectic
    The tension people experience when they have two seemingly contradictory but connected needs
  359. 3 Dialectics that affect Relationship Development
    • Autonomy/Connection
    • Expressiveness/Privacy
    • Change/Predictability
  360. Relationship Dialectics: Autonomy/Connection
    A dialectical tension in relationships that refers to one's need to connect with others and the simultaneous need to feel indepenent or autonomous
  361. Relationship Dialectics: Expressiveness/Privacy
    A dialectical tension in relationship that describes the need to be open and to self-disclose while also maintaining some sense of privacy
  362. Relationship Dialectics: Change/Predictability
    A dialectical tension in relationships that describes the human desire for events that are new, spontaneous, and unplanned while simultaneously needing some aspects of life to be stable and predictable
  363. Relational Maintenance
    • Behaviors that couples perform that help maintain their relationships
    • Ex: Friendships: Using assurances, positivit, open discussion, and listening to help maintain the friendship
    • Ex: Romantic Partners: Using joint activities, humor, positivity, openness, sharing tasks to maintain the relationship
  364. Sudden Death
    Refers to relationship that end without prior waring (for at least one participant)
  365. Passing Away
    The process by which relationships decline over time
  366. Withdrawl/Avoidance
    A friendship termination strategy in which friends spend less time together, don't return phone class, and avoid places where they are likely to see each other
  367. Deception
    Concealment, distortion, or lying in communication
  368. How Often Deception Occurs in Close Relationships
    92% of partners admit to decieving their partner in some way
  369. Jealousy
    A complex and often painful emtion that occurs when aperson percieves a threat to an existing relationsip
  370. Emotions Associated With Jealousy
    • Anger
    • Sadness
    • Worry
    • Embarrassment
    • Disappointment
  371. Men vs. Women's Expressions of Jealousy
    Men: More likely to consider leaving the relationship and to become involved with other wimen in an attempt to repair their self-esteem

    Women: More likely to focus on repairing the relationship
  372. Battering
    • Relationships in which one individual uses violence as a way to control and dominate their partner
    • (Most batterers are male)
  373. Situational Couple Violence
    Characterized by less intense forms of violence and tends to be more mutual in its performance
  374. Interpersonal Violence
    Physical violence against a partner or child
  375. 2 Types of Interpersonal Violence
    • Battering
    • Situational couple violence
  376. Communication Patterns of Violent Couples
    • Lack fundamental communication and problem-solving skills
    • Tend to engage in more conflict discussions
    • Appear unble to let even small maters slide
    • Unable to present and defend their positions on issues without becoming hostile
  377. Aversive Communication
    • Negative communication behaviors:
    • Annoy
    • Criticize
    • Nag
    • Betray
    • Lie
    • Disappoint
    • Ostracize
    • Embarrass
    • Tease
  378. How Often People Experience Aversive Communication in Relationships
    44% likely to be annoyed by a relational partner on any given day
  379. Negative Affects of Deception on Relationships
    • Relationship termination
    • Stress
    • Depression
  380. Envy
    • A feeling of grudging or somewhat admiring discontent aroused by the possessions, achievements, or qualities of another
    • A feeling of discontent or covetousness with regard to another's advantages, success, possessions, etc.