Ch12_CogPsyc_Exam3

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darwinguevarra
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Ch12_CogPsyc_Exam3
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2010-12-05 23:21:51
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Ch. 12: Language
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  1. 1. Researchers interested in examining the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language are:
    a. developmental psychologists
    c. linguists
    b. psycholinguists
    d. neurologists
    b. psycholinguists
  2. 2. ___________ refers to the knowledge someone has about the structure of language.
    a. Syntax
    c. Grammar
    b. Discourse
    d. Lexicon
    c. Grammar
  3. 3. ____________ is a coherent group of written or spoken sentences.
    a. Syntax
    c. Grammar
    b. Discourse
    d. Lexicon
    b. Discourse
  4. 4. The syntactic level of language representation in a phrase structure tree deals with
    a. propositions and inferences
    c. noun and verb phrases
    b. the choice of words
    d. sounds and their meanings
    c. noun and verb phrases
  5. 5. A diagram of a sentence illustrating the hierarchical syntactic structure of the sentence is called a:
    a. syntactic branch
    c. sentence diagram
    b. phrase structure tree
    d. syntactic parsing tree
    b. phrase structure tree
  6. 6. Damage to the auditory perception area would result in difficulties with:
    a. language representation
    c. comprehension
    b. speech perception
    d. hearing
    b. speech perception
  7. 7. Disruption in language or speech is referred to as:
    a. agnosia
    c. aphasia
    b. ataxia
    d. amnesia
    c. aphasia
  8. 8. Cortical control of the throat, tongue, jaw, and lips is found in:
    a. Broca’s area
    c. Wernicke’s area
    b. the parietal lobe
    d. the primary motor cortex
    d. the primary motor cortex
  9. 9. A _______________ is the smallest unit of meaning in a language.
    a. morpheme
    c. phoneme
    b. functional word
    d. discourse
    a. morpheme
  10. 10. A patient has fairly good grammar and generally used function morphemes correctly. However, he cannot produce content morphemes. As a result, his speech usually does not make sense. What disorder do you suspect this patient has?
    a. Broca’s aphasia
    c. nonfluent aphasia
    b. Wernicke’s aphasia
    d. discourse aphasia
    b. Wernicke's aphasia
  11. 11. A patient has difficulty distinguishing the difference in meaning between sentences like “Barry Bonds hit the pitch” and “The pitch hit Barry Bonds.” What disorder do you suspect this patient has?
    a. Broca’s aphasia
    c. fluent aphasia
    b. Wernicke’s aphasia
    d. syntactic aphasia
    a. Broca's aphasia
  12. 12. A patient has fairly good grammar and generally used function morphemes correctly. However, he cannot produce content morphemes. You want to do an MRI to see if (the) ____________ is damaged.
    a. Broca’s area
    c. primary motor cortex
    b. Wernicke’s area
    d. auditory perception area
    b. Wernicke's area
  13. 13. A _______________ is the minimal unit of sound that distinguishes words in a given language.
    a. morpheme
    c. function morpheme
    b. grammapheme
    d. phoneme
    d. phoneme
  14. 14. Being able to combine and recombine phonemes to make different morphemes is referred to as (the):
    a. combination rule
    c. duality of patterning
    b. pluralistic construction
    d. linguistic complexity
    c. duality of patterning
  15. 15. There generally is no relationship between the sound of a word and its meaning. This characteristic of language is referred to as:
    a. unpredictability
    c. randomness
    b. arbitrariness
    d. onomatopoeia
    b. arbitrariness
  16. 16. Referring to a classroom chair that has a desk attached to it as a “chesk” is an example of:
    a. randomness
    c. morphing
    b. constructiveness
    d. generative capacity
    d. generative capacity
  17. 17. After learning sign language, Nim’s language ability, as measured by utterance length:
    A. was similar to that of deaf children
    B. remained at the level of an 18-month-old child
    C. was similar to that of hearing children
    D. progressed faster than deaf children
    B. remained at the level of an 18 month old child.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. 18. The entire set of mental representations of words is called the:
    a. lexicon
    c. language
    b. dictionary
    d. vocabulary
    a. lexicon
  19. 19. The three components of the triangle model are _________, __________, and __________.
    a. meaning, spelling, grammar
    c. phonemes, morphemes, syntax
    b. orthography, phonology, meaning
    d. sound, spelling, rules
    b. orthography, phonology, meaning
  20. 20. “There is a light wind today” and “I need to wind the clock” illustrate the principle of:
    a. ambiguity
    c. phonemic complexity
    b. semantic uncertainty
    d. the need for context
    a. ambiguity
  21. 21. A two-dimensional visual display of speech with time on one axis and frequency on the other is known as a ________________.
    a. frequency plot
    c. wavelength-time graph
    b. spectrogram
    d. two-dimensional speech graph
    b. spectrogram
  22. 22. Darker lines on a spectrogram mean _______________.
    a. points of coarticulation
    c. ambiguity
    b. clear articulation
    d. louder sounds
    d. louder sounds
  23. 23. The production of speech sounds is:
    a. communication
    c. verbalization
    b. articulation
    d. expression
    b. articulation
  24. 24. Overlapping phonemes in speech are called:
    a. articulation
    c. double diction
    b. dual enunciation
    d. coarticulation
    d. coarticulation
  25. 25. While you’re watching a late night talk show, a guest says something he is not allowed to say on the air. Even though part of the word in question is “bleeped out”, you still hear the word. This is called the ____________ effect.
    a. coarticulation
    c. phonemic restoration
    b. sound completion
    d. missing sound
    c. phonemic restoration
  26. 26. When participants were shown a video of a woman saying “ba” with the sound “ga” dubbed in instead, they reported hearing the sound “da.” This confusion is known as:
    a. the McGurk effect
    c. the Kuleshov effect
    b. phonemic confusion
    d. the Hitchcock effect
    a. the Mcgurk effect
  27. 27. A group of words that may match a speech signal is a:
    a. lexicon
    c. cohort
    b. vocabulary
    d. neighborhood density
    c. cohort
  28. 28. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in category-specific impairments. Specifically, people tend to have difficulty recognizing _____________ or ______________.
    a. people, objects
    c. living things, manmade things
    b. 2-D things, 3-D things
    d. stationary, moving targets
    d. stationary, moving targets
  29. 29. Bottom-up processing of word meaning occurs _______________ an ambiguous word. Top-down processing seems to occur ______________.
    a. shortly after, at the same time
    c. immediately following, at the same time
    b. before, later
    d. immediately following, 200 milliseconds later
    d. immediately following 200 milliseconds later
  30. 30. “What has four wheels and flies?” The answer is a garbage truck. This joke is based on a kind of ambiguity known as __________________.
    a. unclear subject
    c. adjective-noun reversal
    b. a garden path sentence
    d. object ambiguity
    b. a garden path sentence
  31. 31. A basic property of sentence comprehension is that we interpret words as we encounter them, otherwise known as:
    a. sequential processing
    c. immediacy
    b. serial ordering
    d. order effects
    c. immediacy
  32. 32. “The hamster was found dead in its cage while cleaning” is an example of _____________.
    a. object ambiguity
    c. structural ambiguity
    b. figurative language
    d. disambiguation
    c. structural ambiguity
  33. 33. The point at which the intended meaning of a sentence is clear is called the ____________.
    a. points of understanding
    c. moment of insight
    b. disambiguation region
    d. linguistic clarity marker
    b. disambigation region
  34. 34. _______________ are examples of figurative language.
    a. Metaphors and similes
    c. Sign-language and gestures
    b. Numerical concepts
    d. Sensory descriptors
    a. Metaphors and similes
  35. 35. When people ask a question, their voices typically raise in pitch at the last word. The change in pitch is known as (the):
    a. intonation
    c. frequency modulation
    b. perceptual punctuation
    d. Victor Borge effect
    a. intonation
  36. 36. Sometimes the only way to tell if a statement is meant to be factual, sarcastic, or ironic is by:
    a. the type of ambiguity used
    c. nonverbal cues
    b. intonation
    d. reactions of others
    b. intonation
  37. 37. Skilled readers fixate on ____________ word(s).
    a. every
    c. almost every
    b. definitional
    d. informative
    c. almost every
  38. 38. Eye movements of speed readers are similar to the eye movements of readers:
    a. who are highly skilled
    c. reading normally
    b. who are skimming
    d. who are novices
    b. who are skimming
  39. 39. Reading comprehension for speed readers is about the same as the college students who:
    a. have dyslexia
    c. skim text
    b. are reading their second language
    d. read normally
    c. skim text
  40. 40. Errors in speech stemming from thoughts that a speaker does not want to say are:
    a. sound-exchange errors
    c. word-exchange errors
    b. Freudian slips
    d. message level errors
    b. Freudian slips
  41. 41. Someone who recently had a severe head injury comes to see you because he cannot seem to find the proper names for objects any more. You show him several pictures of everyday objects. He cannot name the objects but can show you how to use them properly. You suspect that he is suffering from:
    a. amnesia
    c. aphasia
    b. TOT
    d. anomia
    d. anomia
  42. 42. Because bilinguals process two languages they have ____________ compared to monolinguals.
    a. more efficient executive processes
    c. fewer TOT experiences
    b. larger vocabularies
    d. enhanced syntactic development
    a. more efficient executive processes

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