Urban Sociology Final Review
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What does the concept of culture suffer from?
What is conceptual ambiguity?
One has a general sense of what the word means, but pinning down a precise definition becomes more difficult.
What is material culture?
- artifacts, or products of human labor that take a
- tangible form (i.e., goods)
What is adaptive culture?
knowledge, ideas, values, beliefs, customs, norms, behaviors
- elements of material or adaptive culture that are
- accessible and appreciated by a large number of people in a society.
Elements of material or adaptive culture that are usually appreciated by only a small number of educated people in a society.
Represent social groups within a larger society that adopt cultural practices that are unique in some way from the cultural practices that are dominant in the society.
What is the purpose of Sharon Zukin's article?
To make sense of the political and economic changes that have occurred in US cities in the post-Reagan period.
What were the five key changes in the economies of US cities?
- * Deindustrialization and globalization of manufacturing industries.
- * A new wave of high tech industrialization
- * The growth of corporate complexes or business networks between corporate headquarters and producer services.
- * The growth of jobs in the service sector of the economy in general
- * The growth of jobs in occupations requiring the creation, processing and distribution of knowledge and information.
What is the symbolic economy?
Expansion of financial services and the growing importance of the stock market and other financial institutions.
Examples of cultural industries
Financial services, artistic institutions, media, music, clothing design and production, architecture, and more.
Why is the symbolic economy and the cultural industries that comprise it important?
- (a) They represent sources of economic growth in metropolitan economies; and
- (b) They produce cultural symbols which contribute toward the social construction of a city's image.
The revitalization and upgrading of decaying inner-city housing
What is a Business Improvement District (BDI)?
BID represents a neighborhood-level organization that allows businesses and property owners within a designated district of a city to voluntarily levy an extra tax on themselves. This extra money is used to support the organization.
What is the key driver of growth in the contemporary economy?
What is creativity?
The ability to create useful new forms or innovations (products) with economic value out of available knowledge.
What is new about creativity?
Creative activities have become mainstreamed and an entire economic infrastructure is being built around them.
What three things are a part of the social structure of creativity?
- 1. New systems for technological creativity.
- 2. New and more effective models for producing goods and services.
- 3. A broad social, cultural and geographic milieu conductive to creativity of all sorts.
What is an effect of outsourcing?
Promotes a modular factory system where the division of labor is split between different companies.
What does the Virtual Corporation do?
Employs a small managerial, design, and marketing staff.
What birthed the creative class?
The rise of the creative economy has produced changes in the class structure of the US.
What is the creative class?
People who add economic value through their creativity
What are the the two components of the creative class?
The super-creative core and creative professionals.
Works in occupations that fully engage in the creative process and the highest order of creative work that include producing new forms and designs, and goods, and services that are perceived to be widely useful. ie. scientists, engineers, etc.
Consists of works who think independently on their jobs and draw upon the complex bodies of knowledge to solve problems. Their jobs typically require high levels of education. ie. Doctors, lawyers, etc.
What are the four categories Florida uses in order to divide the economy?
Agriculture, working class, service class, and the creative class.
Which class is the largest in the US economy?
The service class
Which class is the smallest?
Why is the service class the largest?
Because the class is there to help support the creative class.
Which class demands the most economic power in society?
The creative class
What are the three core values of the creative class?
Individuality, meritocracy, and diversity/Openness
What must cities do in order to attract and retain creative workers (2)?
Embrace creative class values (individuality, tolerance for diversity, meritocracy). Develop infrastructure to support creative class lifestyles (construct "bohemian" districts with art galleries, coffee shops, nouvelle cuisine restaurants)
What is the Traditional Theoretical Perspective of Urban Economic Growth & Population Change?
That the creation of new jobs will lead to population growth which is the reciprocal of Florida
What is the implication for urban policy?
Cities must find ways of expanding and retaining their base of creative workers. In turn high tech firms will start up or locate in the city.
What has always characterized the historical development of cities in the US?
Multi-dimensional social inequality
How does capitalism generate economic inequality?
Because of the social relations of production underlying this economic system
How does the inequality in wealth and earnings produce some benefits for society?
The potential of realizing greater earnings and wealth provides incentives for workers to: Work harder/increase their productivity and invent new products
What has been a key strategy for stimulation worker productivity, creating social commitment to capitalism, and maintaining the viability of capitalism?
Creating inequality within the working class through stratifying salaries and wages.
What is class compact?
Where particular segments of the working class are allocated high wages, benefits, and job security.
What are the three ways that inequality is manifested in US cities?
The rise of the metropolitan area as the key urban unit; the growth of upscale suburbs; and the growth of edge cities
Who was involved and when was the first wave of immigration in the US?
After the Revolutionary war; immigrants from England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland
Who was involved and when was the second wave of immigration in the US?
From 1820-1880. Irish, Germans, and Scandinavians
Who was involved and when was the third wave of immigration in the US?
1880-1920 from Jewish, Slavic, Polish, Italian, and Greek heritage
Who was involved and when was the fourth wave of immigration in the US?
1968 to present of Hispanic and Asian heritage.
What was the average life expectancy of a slave from the south?
21-22 years of age
What was the shift of 73% of African Americans living in the rural south in 1910 to the northern urban areas in the 1960s called?
The Great Migration
What are the three factors that correlated for cities to have low segregation in housing?
- * Large presence of the military
- * Presence of universities
- * Greater equality in white/African American incomes
What have had the most severe effects on neighborhoods in the inner cities of northern manufacturing belt cities?
De-industrialization and economic restructuring
What are the purposes of Wilson's article?
- * To examine how economic restructuring is related to the rise of joblessness and an urban underclass among African Americans in the inner city neighborhoods of US cities.
- * To examine the social effects of economic restructuring and joblessness on inner city neighborhoods
What are the two criteria of low skilled work?
- a. The level of education required for a job; and
- b. The difficulty in acquiring the skill(s) needed to perform the job at a competent level.
Low skill occupation
Worker whose job is to push a button on a computerized machine that grinds intraocular lenses
High skill occupation
Worker who writes software programs for the computerized machine that grinds intraocular lenses
What are the three key trends that Wilson points out?
- a. Job opportunities in low-skilled manufacturing occupations have declined.
- b. Real wages for low-skilled workers have declined at a higher rate compared to other segments of the labor force
- c. Job ladders (opportunities for promotion within a company) have declined and many less-skilled workers have been forced to stagnate in dead-end, low-paying jobs.
What are the three things that have influenced joblessness among African Americans in inner city neighborhoods in the US?
- * The decline of inner city employment
- * The shift of employment growth to the suburbs
- * The obstacles to employment posed by spatial mismatch
What are some obstacles to suburban employment to inner city residents?
- * Commute time
- * Lack of public transportation with easy access
- * Costs result in an insufficient increase in income
What is the result of a loss in population?
A decrease in population density
What are the psychological conditions of living in poverty?
High fear of crime, feelings of isolation, and an attitude of futility and a lack of self-efficacy
Lack of self-efficacy
Residents begin to doubt their ability to accomplish conventional goals; and/or they believe that their efforts will ultimately be futile because of discrimination and a world that is uncaring and unresponsive to their efforts.
What are the purposes of the chapter on the American Apartheid by Massey and Denton?
- a. To describe the extent to which residential segregation for African Americans still exists in America, despite laws prohibiting discrimination in housing.
- b. To examine the causes of this phenomenon.
Fair Housing Act of 1968
prohibited discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing on the basis of race, religion, and national origin.
How was the urban underclass image created?
By the end of the 1970s, the image of poor minority families mired in an endless cycle unemployment, unwed childbearing, illiteracy and gov't dependency had become firmly entrenched in public discourse concerning urban poverty and housing.
Four different theoretical perspective that were developed to explain the urban underclass
The culture of poverty, racism, and two others that weren't on the powerpoint
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