Pharm 3

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kathleenagrace
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53670
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Pharm 3
Updated:
2010-12-06 02:38:21
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nurs
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test 3
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  1. Neuropharmacology:
    Definition, 2 Categories
    • study of drugs that alter processes controlled by the nervous system
    • 1. peripheral NS drugs
    • 2. central NS durgs
  2. Axonal Conduction
    • conducts an action potential down axon of a neuron
    • from neuron, down axon, to axon terminal
    • rare method of drugs, nonselective, only local anesthesia is effective
  3. Synaptic Transmission
    • sythesis, storage, release, binding, termination
    • process by which info is carried accross the synaptic gap
    • most common, allows for selectivity
  4. 5 Steps in Synaptic Transmission
    • Transmitter Synthesis: from precursor molecules
    • Transmitter Storage: vesicles w/in terminal
    • Transmitter Release: vesicles fuse w/terminal membrane
    • Receptor Binding: reversible bind to postsynaptic cell receptor
    • Termination of Transmission: removed from gap
  5. 3 Methods of Termination of Synaptic Transmission
    • Reuptake (axon terminal "pumps" transmitters in)
    • Enzymatic Degradation
    • Diffusion away from synaptic gap
  6. Agonist vs. Antagonist
    • Agonist: drugs that directly activate receptors (increase response)
    • Angtagonist: prevents receptor activation (decrease response)
  7. Primary Response to Activation:
    Beta 1 and Beta 2
    • Beta 1
    • --increased heart rate
    • --increased force of cardiac contraction
    • Beta 2
    • --increased cardiac output
    • --bronchodilation
    • --elevation of blood glucose
  8. 3 Main Elements of a Feedback Loop, Process
    • 1. a sensor
    • 2. an effector
    • 3. neurons connecting the sensor to the effector
    • sensor monitors status of physiologic process
    • info sent to CNS
    • info integrated w/other relevant info
    • signals/instructions sent from CNS along nerves of ANS to effector
    • effector makes appopriate adjustments
    • whole process is called a "REFLEX"
  9. 3 Types of Info Needed for PNS Drugs
    • 1. Identify type(s) of receptors through which the drug acts
    • 2. the normal response to activation of those receptors
    • 3. whether the drug increases or decreases receptor activation
  10. Divisions of the Nervous System
    • 1. Central NS
    • 2. Peripheral NS
    • --A. Somatic Motor System
    • --B. Autonomic Nervous System
    • ------I. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • ------II. Parasympathetic Nervous System
  11. 3 Principle Fxns of Autonomic NS
    • 1. regulation of the heart
    • 2. regulation of secretory glands (salivary, gastric, sweat, broncial)
    • 3. regulatoin of smooth muscles (of bronchi, blood vessels, urogenital system, GI)
  12. 7 Functions of PNS:
    "housekeeping" (conserve energy, digest food, excrete waste, control vision)
    • 1. slow HR
    • 2. incr. Gastric Secretion
    • 3. empty Bladder
    • 4. empty Bowels
    • 5. focus Eye for Near Vision
    • 6. constrict Pupil
    • 7. contract Bronchial Smooth Muscle
  13. 3 Main Fxns of SNS
    • regulate Cardiovascular System
    • regulate Body Temperature
    • implement Fight or Flight
  14. 3 Homeostatis Objectives Achieved by SNS
    • maintain bloodflow to brain
    • redistribute bloodflow during exercise
    • compensate for loss of blood, primarily by cause vasoconstriction
  15. SNS regulation of Body Temperature (3)
    • 1. regulates bloodflow to the skin
    • ---dilates surface vessels (heat loss)
    • ---constricts cutaneou vessels (conserve heat)
    • 2. promotes secretion of sweat
    • 3. induces piloerection (conserve heat)
  16. SNS Fight or Flight Response (5)
    • 1. Incr. HR and Incr. BP
    • 2. Shunting blood away from skin and viscera and into skeletal muscles
    • 3. Bronchodilation to improve oxygenation
    • 4. Dilation of Pupils
    • 5. Mobilizing stored energy, thereby providing glucose for the brain and fatty acids for muscles
  17. SNS vs. PNS:
    eye, tears, saliva, lungs, heart, gut, liver, bladder
    • SNS:
    • Eye:dilates pupil
    • Tear Glands: no effect
    • Salivary Glands: inhibits salivary production
    • Lungs: dilates bronchi
    • Heart: speeds up rate
    • Gut: inhibits peristalsis
    • Liver: stimulates glucose production
    • Bladder: inhibits urination

    • PNS:
    • Eye: contricts pupils
    • Tear Glands: stimulates tear production
    • Salivary Glands: stimulates saliva production
    • Lungs: constricts bronchi
    • Heart: slows down rate
    • Gut: stimulates peristalsis
    • Liver: stimulates bile production
    • Bladder: stimulates urination
  18. Baroreceptor Reflex
    • Most important in ANS
    • Regulates Blood Pressure
    • 1. Baroreceptors in Carotid Sinus + Aortic Arch monitor changes in BP and send info to brain
    • 2. in response, brain send impulse along nerves in ANS, instructing heart &blood vessels how to behave in response to change in BP
    • Decreased BP: reflex vasoconstriction to incr. BP
    • Increased BP: reflex vasodilation to decr. BP
  19. 3 Neurotransmitters of Peripheral NS
    (plus possible 4th)
    • 1. Acetylcholine: employed at most junctions of PNS
    • 2. Norepinephrine: released by practically all postgang. neurons of SNS (only exception is sweat gland[ACh])
    • 3. Epinephrine: major transmitter released by adrenal medulla
    • 4. Dopamine
  20. Cholinergic Receptors
    • mediate responses to ACh (at all jxns where ACh is the transmitter)
    • --ganglia of ANS
    • --neuromuscular jxn
    • --organs regulated by PNS
    • Subtypes:
    • Nicotinic N
    • Nicotinic M
    • Muscarinic
  21. Adrenergic Receptors
    • mediate responses to Epi and NE (at all jxns where they are the transmitters)
    • Subtypes:
    • Alpha 1
    • Alpha 2
    • Beta 1
    • Beta 2

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