5.25 Reproductive System

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5.25 Reproductive System
2010-12-07 00:46:31
Male Reproductive System Female Reproductive System

Anatomy Chapter 25: The Reproductive System
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  1. The Male Reproductive System: Testes
    • Testes have two main functions:
    • 1. Produces testosterone (endocrine)
    • 2. Produces sperm (exocrine)

    • Located within the scrotum (skin and superficial fascia)
    • Positioned outside the body; ~3˚C cooler than body temperature (37˚C) (sperm cannot survive at body temp)
    • Dartos muscle: layer of smooth muscle; creates layer of insulation
    • Cremaster muscle: bands of skeletal muscle surrounding the testes; elevates testes when it's cold outside
  2. The Testes
    • Tunica albuginea: fibrous capsule of the testes
    • - divides each testis into 250-300 lobules
    • - each lobule contains 1-4 coiled seminiferous tubules that produce sperm
    • - seminiferous tubules of each lobe converge to empty the sperm into a straight tubule
    • - straight tubules deliver its contents into the rete testis
    • Seminiferous tubules:
    • spermatogenic cells - sperm forming cells
    • sustentacular (Sertoli) cells - suppoirt cells

    • Interstitial cells: (Leydig cells)
    • secrete testosterone, regulated by LH
  3. The Epididymis
    Epididymis: comma-shaped structure on posterior testis

    Immature sperm complete their maturation process

    20 day journey for sperm to move through; gains the ability to swim and fertilize an egg
  4. The Spermatic Cord
    Connective tissue cord containing ductus deferens, testicular blood vessels, nerves

    • Ductus Deferens (vas deferens): stores and transports sperm
    • - joins the duct from seminal vesicle and becomes ejaculatory duct
  5. The Urethra
    Carries sperm from ejaculatory ducts to the "outside"

    Three parts of the male urethra: prostatic, membranous, spongy
  6. Male Reproductive System
    Accessory Glands
    • Seminal vesicles: lie on the posterior surface of the urinary bladder
    • - secretes about 60% of the volume of semen
    • Semen contains:
    • - Fructose to nourish sperm
    • - Substances to enhance sperm motility
    • - Enzymes that clot and then liquefy semen
    • - Alkaline in nature: buffers sperm against the acidic environment of the female reproductive tract

    • Prostate gland: encircles the prostatic urethra
    • - consists of 20-30 compound tubuloalveolar glands
    • - secretes about 25-30% of seminal fluid
    • - contains substances that enhance sperm motility and enzymes that clot and liquefy semen

    • Bulbourethral glands: pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate gland
    • - produces a mucus that enters the spongy urethra prior to ejaculation (neutralizes traces of acidic urine and lubricates urethra)
  7. The Penis
    • External Anatomy:
    • - Shaft: body
    • - Glans penis: distal expanded end
    • - Prepuce: foreskin (removed during circumcision)

    • Internal Anatomy:
    • - Three elongated cylinders of erectile tissue
    • 1x corpus spongiosum surrounding spongy urethra
    • 2x corpora cavernosa make up most of the penis

    Erection: penis becomes rigid and enlarged; under parasympathetic control
  8. Female Reproductive System
    • Produces gametes (ova)
    • Includes ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina

  9. The Ovaries
    Small, almond-shaped organs; produce ova

    • Held in place by ligaments and mesenteries
    • - broad ligament
    • - suspensory ligament
    • - ovarian ligament

    • tunica albuginea: fibrous capsule of the ovary
    • ovarian cortex: houses developing oocytes
    • follicles: multicellular sacs housing oocytes
    • ovarian medulla: loose connective tissue containing blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves
  10. The Uterine Tubes
    Receive ovulated oocyte

    • Parts of the uterine tube:
    • Infundibulum: distal end of uterine tube, surrounded by fibriae (finger-like projections)
    • Ampulla: middle third of uterine tube; usual site of fertilization
    • Isthmus: medial third of uterine tube
  11. The Uterus
    • Lies anterior to rectum, posterior to bladder
    • Anteverted (anteflexed) usual position of uterus

    • Parts of the uterus
    • Body: composed of
    • - fundus: rounded superior portion
    • - cervix: "neck" of uterus
    • *cervical canal: communicates with vagina inferiorly

    • The uterus is supported by
    • - Mesometrium: anchors uterus to lateral pelvic walls
    • - Round ligaments: bind uterus to the anterior pelvic wall
  12. The Uterine Wall
    • Wall of the uterus is composed of
    • 1. Perimetrium
    • 2. Myometrium
    • 3. Endometrium

    Endometrium has two layers: functional layer and basal layer (sloughs off during menstruation)
  13. The Vagina
    Thin-walled tube inferior to the uterus; serves as the birth canal

    • Hymen: an incomplete diaphragm
    • Fornix: recess formed at the superior part of the vagina