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How did the international relations amongst former allies shift around 1945?
- Soviet Union = major threat
- Douglas voted against aid to Greece & Turkey- 1st step to new policy to contain the spread of communism
- Results: Marshall Plan
What is the Cold War?
- Terms of the relationship with Soviet Union-
- proxy wars b/w the US and the Soviet Union, countries independent of the US, training weapons.
What are Proxy Wars?
Third world countries being used as the two mediates as the two big dissatisfactions with the two big fights.
What was the relationship of the two sides during the Cold War?
- Lack of friendliness
What happened to create the Cold War?
- 1947: rivalry between the super powers
- WWII: We ignored the Soviet Union (created animosity)
- Russians put a lot into the war, didn't get the territory they wanted; lost 20 mil in population
- Result: this set off Stalin, impact of Nazi's in Russia
What happens in the beginning of the Cold War?
- Grand Alliance to Containment:
- -Stalin wants Germany to pay
- -The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan come into play
- This all creates a National Security State, and a superpower rivalry around the globe
What is the Truman Doctrine?
- -To insure the communist efforts didn't succeed
- -Lending economic and military aid to nations that wanted to resist communism
- -Ex: If Greece and Turkey were to fall, it would create the "domino effect"
What is the "domino effect"?
- Domino Effect Theory-
- If Greece and Turkey fell, they would topple on neighboring regions
- Middle East: concerned that oil would be restricted because of this
- If Greece fell to the rebels: confusion and disorder might spread through middle east
- Create instability in Europe
- Failure to act- endanger the peace of the world and welfare of the nation
What was the Marshall Plan?
- March 1948- build economic structure, created democracies, and supported them.
- -create a buffer between the nations falling to communism
- -Helping Europe for democracy
- -Becomes important to the US- borders would be different, its a defense plan for political ideologies
What did the US do for Europe unter the Marshall Plan?
- Investment in building Europe
- promoted democracy, capitalism
How did the Cold War effect US citizens?
- -Women wanted to work
- -Foreign policy: imp. to the ppl; do not isolate, very involved in whats happening
- -Democratic Step: spreading of freedom, democracy, capitalism
- -Took harder approach to communism
- -Deterrence: more powerful force from the fear of nuclear attack
- -Military build up
- -Collective Alliance: secure capitalism, freedom, and democracy
- -Foriegn Alliance
- -Espionage and Covert Ops: Propoganda and cultural exchange, this is where the jazz musican and his group got to go to places they would have with out this happening.
What was the Democratic Step?
spreading of freedom, democracy, capitalism
How did the Cold War effect Eastern Europe?
- -Stalin wants to expand communist influence in Europe
- -Stalin felt the US was hypocritical
Explain the rise of technological advances and super-power statuses?
Roll Back: push back communist presence in particular area; doesn't work long term; example, Checkloselvocia
Containment: do not allow them to press forward with Communism; successful
What is the "Iron Curtain"
- "An iron curtain has descended over the entire curtain of Europe"
- Speaking of countries of soviet influences or communist in their regions
What is the 22nd Amendment?
- While FDR was in office:
- Truman was about to be in office
- You can only serve 2 terms
Who are the Anti-communist crusaders and what did they do?
- Joseph R. McCarthy- wisconsin senator
- Went over board, accused General George Marshall of communism
- Lost credibility
- Depicted as Gorilla
- "black listed by history"
What is the issue with Korea and explain the North and South fight
- Seoul- most productive city, it divided the north and south
- North Korea wants Seoul for economic reasons
- 6 days after "Something" North Korea takes Seoul and begins huge problems
38 parallel is still going on today
What happened with Korea's Seoul and how did we get involved?
- June 1950- US learns the 6 days ago, North took Seoul.
- -Didn't want it to become the "Greece of Asia"
- -Truman orders police action (he can't declare war, so he utilizes with police action)
- -US has majority troops on ground (1-8 mil)
- -Sets up for another conflict
What impact did the Korean War have on the military and military spending?
- American Involvement- Indochina, (French colony, fighting a civil war from France)
- - we assisted them
- - Military spending: $14 bil to $50 bil, then stayed at $40 bil after.
- -Defense spending claimed 60% of fed. budget, size of armed forces tripled
Explain the rivalry between the US and Russia
- Russia's rapid economic growth, adopted socialist and communist ideas
- -US leaders saw them as threat extensions of Soviet power
- -US wanted to contain communism by fostering economic development and political stability
How is the US a superpower after WWII?
- Ideal of self-determination
- Independence in Philippines 1946
- Applauded British withdrawal from India
- Encouraged France to relinquish the empire in Indochina
Who was Stalin and what was Stalin's view of the US?
- He put 35 mil ppl to death
- Bad news for Russia
- US officials hypocritical in demanding democratic elections in Eastern Europe while supporting dictatorships friendly to US interests in Latin America
What are the 6 defense strategies of the containment policy?
- 6-pronged defense strategy
- 1. Development of atomic weapons
- 2. Strengthening trad. military power
- 3. Military alliances with other nations
- 4. Military and economic aid to friendly nations
- 5. An espionage network and secret means to subvert Communist expansion
- 6. Propaganda offensive to win popular admirations for the US around the world
What was the containment policy and who enforced it?
It had the 6-pronged defense strategy; during the years of truman; prevented the spread of communism
What was the Soviet Blockade of Berlin and what did we do?
- Feb. 1948- congress debated the Marshall Plan, Soviets stages a brutal coup and installed a communist regimen in Check., the last democracy left in Eastern Europe.
- Stalin threaten Western access to Berlin
- What did THEY do?
- - All 4 allies jointly occupied Berlin, sep. admin units
- - Soviets retaliated by blocking roads and rail lines b/w West Germany and the Western-held sections of Berlin
- -This cut off food and other esst. to 2 mil inhabitants
- What did WE do?
- - Truman: We stay in Berlin, avoid confrontation with Soviet troops
- - Year, US and British pilots airlifted 2.3 mil tons of goods to sustain the West Berliners
- - Stalin didn't shoot them, 1949 he lifted the blockade
What is the Hydrogen Bomb?
- Soviets had the atomic bomb
- Truman wanted to stay a step ahead, so they allowed dev. of hydrogen bomb (500 atomic bombs)
- Soviets exploded their own hydrogen bomb
What is NATO?
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization
- 1. made my truman, supports the Marhsall plan, came to NATO and the war to Korea
- 2. Designed to counter a Soviet threat to West. Europe
- 3. Result: First time US pledged to go to war if one of its allies were attacked
- 1949: Congress approved $1 bil of military aid to NATO- gov began economic assistance to nations
- -We came to Korea because of the North's crap
- -Truman appointed Eisenhower the first supreme commander of NATO forces
What is the CIA?
- Central Intelligence Agency
- 1. Created by the National Security Act of 1947
- 2. Why? - to gather info; perform duties that might prevent something happening to the national security
- (what would they consider? propaganda, sabotage, economic warfare, support for "anti-communist elements in the threatened countries of the free world)
- 3. How?? Rid of legit. foreign gov. and violate rights of US
- deceiving the enemy about US plans, assisting local foces against leaders the US didn't like, geting rid of activities of the communist.
What is the "third world"?
- Asia, Africa, & Latin America
- - Distinguish developing countries from the capitalist and communist blocs.
- - Outside the Western (first) and Soviet (second) orbits that bad not yet dev. industrial economies
What is the GI Bill?
- The Servicemen's Readjustment Act
- - gave economic boost after the New Deal
- - Offered 16 mil vetrans job training and education
- - Unemployment compensations while looking for jobs
- - Low interest loans to purchase homes, farms, and small business
- By 1948: 1.4 mil vets. had bought homes with gov. loans
- 2.2 ex soldiers attended college, boom in high edu.
- Good for vets. still left out African Am. though
Black Vets- shuttled into menial labor
What happened to the US after the war?
- Economic Boom
- lasted through 1960's
- flood of consumer goods
What were politics like around 1952? The "middle" way?
- No one believed Truman would be elected; he decides not to run
- Eisenhower becomes part of the equation
Explain the election of Eisenhower & his running mate...
- - Retired general, war hero, Republican party recruit, and accepts
- - Utilized his reputation
- 1952: running and chooses running mate, Senator Richard M. Nixon
Explain the controversy of Eisenhower's running mate
- Nixon- immediate controversy
- - accused of accepting $18,000 from leading citizens in CA
- -Excuse: 2 pedigree puppies given to his daughters as a gift, therefore, not political money
- - Public believes that the bulk of this money is from the puppies...
- -Nixon was BIG on PR- and was the first to come before public to explain situation on TV
What did Eisenhower do with McCarthy?
Leave him alone, and he would burn himself out, which we does.
Explain the second election of Eisenhower
- Democratice nominee: Stevenson
- Eisenhower: reelected and made a new look for foreign policy
Explain Eisenhower's Presidency/Administration
- 1. Did well: Ended Korean conflict
- cost 36-40,000 American lives during it...
- 2. Moderate views for the time period
- 3. Diff. perspective on how nation should be run
- 4. Cabinet: not trad. politicians, but good business leaders (wanted the view of people, not typical pol.)
- 5. Believed in state's rights
What were the rights of the state that Eisenhower believed in?
- Economy and state economy would be better off with small businesses being left alone
- Each state has its own economy- have their own taxing, rather than at a federal level
What was to come from Eisenhower's presidency? Some of the things that happened because of it...
- 1. Increase in Welfare state: def. programs that don't conform to republican standards
- 2. 1954: permanent change during depression, makes SS a permanent program
- 3. 1956: interstate highway and defense act
- 4. Public housing: construction targeted towards inner-city, financing the availability; creates jobs
What is the Interstate Highway and Defense Act of 1956?
- 1. Legislation puts highways on the map
- 2. Authorizes the construction
- 3. Not for the simplicity of driving, but for public emergency, military missiles and troops to move through US fast
- 4. 15 ft tall for missiles
How did Eisenhower "deal" with the Native American issue?
- Tribes filed lawsuits...
- 1950's he decides to settle this...
1. Compensation: wanted to end the lawsuits before trial, settle them out of court with money for lost tribal lands
2. Termination: end the rel. b/w US and NA tribes; fed. gov didnt want a nation within a nation; wanted to avoid another inner war
3. Relocation: break apart tribes strength; given one way tickets to urban citites (NY, LA); wanted the younger generation of tribes to see other opportunites; gave them systems for housing, job training, and 1/3 of them who took the ticket found way back
- 3 things to settle NA issue:
- Compensation; Termination; Relocation
- Didn't like this, made NA ghettos, prejudice, and unemployment; rise in alcoholism, heart disease, and diabetes, loss of culture
What was Eisenhower's take on foreign policy?
- New devices were created, and nuclear capacity...
- 1. Missile Systems- ICBM's (long range missiles in place of standard feet on the ground); E believes future of militaty
- 2. Indochina: French colony in civil war, 1950's there is a communist influence there, US gives support to Ho Chi Minh
- 3. Used the same type of concepts of Truman (domino effect)
- 4. Vietnam: view of the Greece of Asia; uses containment, no direct involvement, doesn't want to be the pres. that brings us there again
What are Missile Systems?
Missile Systems- ICBM- long range missiles in place of fighting on foot; future of military.
What is Brinkmanship?
- Soviet Union and the US bring us to a nuclear war on reg. basis
- telling people how close we are to "pushing the button"
What is MAD, Mutually Assured Destruction?
Soviet Union creates 2 ICBM's, we create 3.
Each side will try to out do the other
What is the Doomsday Clock?
- How close we are to mutual extermination
- Domino Effect of the bombs
- Midnights being strike time, 20 min till 5 min, etc
What did Eisenhower want to do about this war?
- 2 sides at the verge of mutual destruction, but all computerized, no humans on the face of the earth would be left, literally fought with machines
- He wanted to "pull back the Iron Curtain"
During the time of Eisenhower's pres, what were the state of Middle East relations?
- 1. ME at risk of falling to communism
- 2. Willing to achieve their goals w/o taking a just from one side, wanted it from both sides
- 3. If Vietnam fell to it: neighboring place would, and effect US interests
- 4. By end of '55-61, find US involvement increase, $800 mil to South Vietnam
- 5. ARVN: becomes critical factor in success or failure of effort
- 6. Supported dictatorship in Cuba by Batista
Who was Steven Dulles and explain the situation the US went through?
- 1955- he conducts a series of discussions with Pres. of Egypt (Nasser)
- 1. Lead a group of high-ranking mil. officers (successful!)
- 2. Officers dissatisfied with how monarchy was handling themselves (loans and building lavish things); officers reach a plan headed by Nasser, and takes office in Egypt
- 3. Wants to modernize Egypt; reaches out to US and Soviet Union
- 4. Wants tanks, and arms, negotiated a deal with US
- 5. He needs to build a second dam in Aswan...
- - US: to creat a direct relationship, you have to create a deal
- - Wanted exclusivity, US wanted to dominate the decisions, but Nasser sees disservice
- - Nasser buys this from USSR, knocks us out
- - Showed the US that Egypt, Middle East, were willing to negotiate to find the person who is at the best interest of them, not to take allegiance of one side.
How was the CIA effected through the Middle East Relations?
US sent in CIA to destabilize Arbenz admin. (nationalized the fruit company, fairly substantial, US took it personally)
What was the result of the whole "Egypt" situation?
- Eisenhower Doctrine
- The US would provide AID to Middle Eastern Nations against spreading of communist or communist supported nations
What were the technological advances in the 1950's?
- 1. Agricultural & Industry:
- push production by fertilization and increase output of crops; hybridized seed; new machines replacing the hands on work; labor unions form, airconditioning...
- 2. Consumer Change:
- consumer culture, keeping up with the "Jones"; making sure you had the next best thing
- 3. Counter Currents:
- Betty Fridan- wrote "the Feminine Physic"
- Found NOW, push through 1980's for amendment for equalizing the rights of women, EQUALITY OVER EVERYTHING, never ratified.
- Self helping women, go out and pursue
Explain the Agricultural & Industry technological advances in the 1950's
- Hybridized Seed: crop specialization begins, gene picking, making specialized plants
- Example: Cambles giant carrots!
- New machines: eliminates the need for human work on farm
- seeing the small family farm dissapear, big companies are getting involved
Labor unions forming, wages increased by about 40%, unions having greater control
What were some of the consumer changes in the 1950's?
- Keeping up the Jones!
- TV changes culture and politics
- Baby Boomers are the consumer culture
Explain US housing in the 1950's
- Burgeoning Suburbs and Declining Cities
- - Migrant workers: wages wont increase, not be needed as they were because of technology
- - Increase in clerical and service worker orientation: more opp. for women
- - Migration to suburbs: business migrating and leaving city (corporate campus develop)
- - Dev. of slums, economically depressed areas
- - Subsidize home ownership: targeting ppl. to be able to afford homes, move from poor, go out and purchase homes in suburbs
- - urban poor became the urban ghettos, suburbs have distinct anglo saxon appeal
What is the FHA?
FHA: dev. a program in home lending, deduction of home income taxes
What came of the higher education in the 1950's?
- Because of the GI Bill...
- - More blacks can attend college, affects the ethnically oriented economy
- - Beginning to see shift in demographics of education
- - Change of passion in students
- - Referred to as the "silent generation"- not taking part in various programs, no extra curricular focus, passive and cautionary, and tending to conform
What is the Brown v. Board of Education?
- 1954- addresses and reverses the segregation with previous "Plessey v. Ferguson 1896"
- - Separate institutes inequality
- - Desegregation begins, integration begins
What is the SCLC?
- Southern Christian Leadership Conference
- - Still exists, formed by MLK, address the issues of civil rights, in non violent manner
What is the SNCC?
- Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
- No central head quarters
- College students wanting to make a change
- Non militant
- Carmicheal- head person
- Comes CORE- Congress of Radical Equality
What is CORE?
Congress of Racial Equality
Who is MLK and how and what did he do?
- Martin Luther King Jr.
- - March on Washington for civil rights and made speach "I have a dream" to 300,000 people
What happened in 1964 for Mississippi freedom rights on the bus?
- Normally: blacks would sit at the back of a bus, white rode in front
- - Freedom Rights (group of college students): protested to this, rode bus and switched places of blacks and whites while driving, all arrested when they arrived
What was the "New Look" on foreign policy around the 1950's?
- - Better utilize military dollars, expand on new nuclear arms fire power thats availible
- - Nuclear arms race with others (soviet union)
- - Reduce the number of arms out there, but they are looking to be better than the others with Nuc. Arms
- - 1960: testing band has begun, limiting or eliminated testing of bombs above ground, due to radiation, and it raining down to boundary countries
- - 1957: Superiority with soviets, with the halo, chill effect b/w 2 super powers, the soviet union realizes the US is spying with U2 plane
What did the US do to the Soviets and what was the Soviet's reaction? (U2)
- 1957: US flew U2 spy planes in sub space above Soviet Union, took high level photos, then military analyzed them
- - US didn't trust SU, we could talk to them and make agreements, but never thought they were trustworthy
- - Plane was shot down, pilot was captured, now SU has copy of this plane and knows truth
What was the cost associated with Vietnam b/w 1955-1961?
$800 mil funded directly to support the war
Who is Fidel Castro and what is the Cuban Revolution?
- - Aligned certain countries so that we could keep the favor of both sides
- - Resources, keeping peace, and stopping the "domino effect" and spreading of communism influence on non-communist gov.
- - Any country threatened can take shelter with the US
What is the Eisenhower Doctrine?
Any middle east nation that felt threatened by communism was offered aid, military and economic, from the US
How were women in the work place in 1950's?
- Primary areas of women in work place:
- Clerical (office)
What is Levittown?
- - First of major subdivisions
- - Concept of crew who does separate tasks (used now)
- - Cookie cutter assembly line, knock out lots of homes within a short amount of time
What is the Sun Belt?
- Air conditioning being developed and takes big effect of everything...
- Manufacturing will expand into south or move to the south, a lot of military oriented facilities open up in south
- Also known as the gun belt..
What is the Gun Belt?
- Also known as Sun Belt
- Area in south with lots of military oriented facilitates
- result of air conditioning
How has TV effected everything?
- Changes culture and politics
- Executive triple the money spent on ads, success through "stuff"
- Boom in religious views (Billy Gram), huge outreach on TV, label for communism as an Anti Christ movement, communism is the removal of religion in society
- Little box that helps ppl. compare themselves to what is now "accepted", ideal becomes family as husband, wife, and 2 kids, with dog
- FCC chairmen, Newton Minnow explains TV as a vast wasteland
Results in Beat movement, hippy movement, rock and roll...
JFK's public appeal and home life?
- Charismatic on Democratic side, young, conservative
- Jackie-O: wife, charming, beautiful, political asset, speaks fluent French
- Ideal relationship with wife
- Father: crooked, family made money through bootlegging, migrated into stock market in 1929, key to insider trading of stock, pushed the crash, Irish immigrant
- JFK was senator in Mass, 43 when inaugurated, youngest pres at time
What were some tactics used by JFK during his election?
- Interesting campaigning
- Went to deep south, saw things horribly, poverty was described as Appalachian poverty, third world country, people still living like 1800's
- Won election by TV's help
- Debated with Nixon on Tv, Nixon looked horrible, JFK seemed to handle himself better, people took to him
During the televised debate with Nixon, what were some of JFK's plans for the future of the US?
- Area Redevelopment Act of 1961: bringing business into the central core of city, 2 bil dollar slum clearance, targeting inner city, area development act, offer incentives for businesses to build in the not so awesome areas
- Program for ppl to become employable, so they could take the new jobs in their area, the Man Power Development and Training Act of 1962: training people for jobs
- Promising to get the country moving again, proposes a huge tax cut
- Conservative, and rec. that if you put more money in the pockets of ppl, it goes to the economy
- BUTTTTTTT don't see that happen because he was assassinated
When and how was JFK assassinated?
- June 1968: no one anticipated it, very pivotal point of how presidents are appearing to public
- Three shots at him in Dallas while riding in a convertible with Jackie-O
- Comes the "Kennedy Curse"
Lyndon B. Johnson's appointment and his back ground..
- Won election to the House of Reps. in 1937
- Won election to Senate in 1948
- Used his post as Senate majority leader to force consensus on civil rights legislation in 1957 and 1960
What were some of Johnson's skills?
- Connection with south, not as popular, but enforced sev. things JFK wanted
- Ideal of "Great Society"- abundance and liberty for all demands on end to poverty and radical injustice
- Wealth and political experience, from Texas Hill Country
- Admired FDR- wanted to out do the New Deal
- "Johnson Treatment"- ability to achieve consensus around his goals
What were some of the things Johnson did when he took office?
- "I had to take a dead man's program and turn it into a martyr's cause," Johnson wanted congress to act so that JFK didn't live or die in vain
- Won over fiscal conservatives, signed JFK's tax cut in Feb 1964, passed Civil Rights Act of 1964
What is the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964?
- creates 10 diff. programs which will spend $800 mil to address the issues of unemployment
- Community Action Program: max. feasible participation of the poor
- Address the growing trent of living a welfare lifestyle
- Required welfare receivers to make skills better
What is the surplus food program?
- Registered with public health department
- let you know when distribution was, you came and got what they were giving out
- Came: Food Stamps, you got your own stamps so you could choose what you were receiving
Explain the election in 1964
- Democratice national convention, altercation from delegation from Miss. (still seg. in south)
- Black member wasn't allowed to be seated, ON TV
- Johnson is watching as well as an international broadcasting
- He is embarrassed and tells them to stop filming
- Johnson approves the voting rights act
Explain why Johnson doesn't run in 1968
- Johnson didn't run for reelection in 1968
- public's reaction to the Vietnam war and his changes, he decides that he doesn't want to
- Public was against him for the Vietnam war, doesn't want to go through that again.
What were some of the Welfare programs under Johnson?
- Poverty acts are reflecting negatively on the homes (female heads of house holds)
- Healthcare costs
What are some of the details concerning Johnson's welfare stances on healthcare costs?
- Physician fees sky rocket- the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid, gave advantage to health care providers, elderly and poor
- "socialized medicine"- wanted gov. sponsored health care
- Johnson focuses on the elderly, large portion of the poor, made Medicare
- Medicaid: federal grants to supplement state paid medical care for poor
What were the educational impacts from Johnson's Welfare programs?
- Wanted to equip poor with skills for job
- federal support for public education as a natural extension of the New Deal- was on the Democratic agenda for 2 decades
- Johnson added "Freedom from Ignorance"
- Created Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965- turning point by involving fed. gov. in K-12 education
- Higher Education Act- brought for the Universities and Colleges, build and allow small student loans to students
What were the immigration effects from Johnson's welfare programs?
- Act of 1965: quote system, immigration and nationality act will eliminate the quote system, open boarder
What are Carmicheal's polital views?
- More aggressive approach to issue of civil rights
- Upraised fist, chant of black power, organizations become more violent in approach
- Black panther party
- Weatherman organization
What was the Black Panther Party?
Violent organization and fire power
What is the Weatherman Organization?
- Leftist organization
- Eager to see a conversion to soviet style
- Communism in the US: responsible for bombings and wanting to get attention for political powers
What was the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965?
- Involved the Fed. Gov. with K-12 education
- Money sent to schools depending on poor students in area
- Provided equipment and supplies to private and parochial schools
- Followed with the Higher Education Act
What was the Higher Education Act?
Gave Fed. assistance to colleges and universities for buildings, programs, scholarships, and low-interest student loans
What were the militant actions taken by Native Americans?
- Denise Banks and Mitchell from unit out of Minnesota
- 300,000 NA took one way bus tickets
- Re created the reservation and re taught culture
- Wounded Knee- ghost dance by students
- The NA go into San Francisco
Who was the founder of the National Organization for Women?