Psych 100: Chpt 5

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annzors
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53730
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Psych 100: Chpt 5
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2010-12-06 13:57:27
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Consciousness
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  1. Consciousness
    • Is the subjective awarenessof internal and external events
    • Aware of mental experiences, such as perception, thought, emotions, & wishes
    • Person's subjective experience of the world and the mind
    • Awareness of ourselves & our environment
    • Is an awareness of these processes, not the processes themselves
  2. Dichotic Listening
    A task in which people wearing headphones hear different messages presented to each ear
  3. Cocktail Phenomenon
    • The conscious system is most inclined to select information of special interest to the person
    • people tune in one message even whilte they filter out others nearby
  4. Type of Consciousness
    • 1) Consciousness: a person's awareness of everything; related to sense of self
    • 2) Waking consciousness: state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear, organized; ALERT
    • 3) Altered state of con.: state in which there is a shift in quality or pattern of mental activity cf. waking con.
  5. Types of Waking Consciousness
    • 1) Directed consc: focused and orderly tracking of specific stimulus
    • 2) Flowing consc: drifting, unfocused awareness; moves at random, stimuli to the next
    • 3) Daydreaming: internally focused and directed thinking; cf. direct consc, but centered on fantasies
  6. Level of Consciousness
    • 1) Waking consc
    • 2) Preconscious: taking ideas not in your direct awareness & giving them priority (e.g. aware that someone is watching you)
    • 3) Unconscious: unavailable to awareness in most circumstances (e.g. body lang, cocktail party, reading, etc.)
    • 4) Non-conscious: e.g. blinking and breathing
  7. Aspect of waking consciousness
    • selective attention:
    • divided attention: being two places (mentally at once; multitasking
    • inattentional blindness: refers to inability to see an object in our midst
  8. EEG: Electroencephalogram
    recording of brain activity
  9. Rouge Test
    self-recognition test that identifies a human child's abiblity to recognize a reflection in the mirror andn his or her own
  10. REM (rapid eye movement)
    darting of the eyes underneath the closed eyelids during sleep
  11. REM sleep
    • stage of sleep during which the brain is most active and during which vivid dreaming most often occurs
    • most REM and high level of brain activity
  12. Non-REM (NREM)
    states 1 through 4 of the sleep cycles during which eye movement do not occur and dreaming is less frequent and vivid
  13. Lucid dreaming
    experience of becoming aware that one is dreaming
  14. Circadian Rhythm
    • cyclical changes that occur on a roughly 24 hour basis in many biological processes
    • body temp, urine production, metabolis, (stress) hormone
  15. Insomnia
    difficulty falling or staying asleep
  16. Narcolepsy
    disorder characterized by the rapid and often unexpected onset of sleep
  17. Sleep apnea
    disorder caused by a blockage of airway during sleep, resulting in daytime fatigue
  18. Night terrors
    sudden waking episodes characterized by screaming, perspiring, and confusion followed by a return to a deep sleep
  19. Activation-synthesis theory
    • theory that dreams reflect inputs from brain activation
    • originating in the pons, which the forebrain then attempts to weave into a story
  20. Sociocognitive theory
    approach to hypnosis based on people’s attitudes, beliefs, and expectations
  21. Dissociation theory
    approach to explaining hypnosis based on a separation between personality functions that are normally well integrated
  22. Adaptive theory
    theory of sleep proposing that animals and humans eolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predaotrs are most active
  23. Restorative theory
    theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish to the physical health of the body and chemicals and rapir cellular damage
  24. Evolutionary theory
    we evolved to sleep so that we would conserve energy when we were least effiicient
  25. Waves / Sleep ordering
    • beta waves – awake
    • alpha waves – calm wakefulness
    • theta waves – stage 1
    • sleep spindles and K complexes – stage 2
    • delta waves – stage 3 and 4
    • REM
    • sleep
  26. More Ordering
    • awake and non attentive - closed eyes, awake, meditating alpha waves
    • awake and attentive - low amplitude, fast, irregular, beta waves
    • sleep stage 1&2 - brain enters a high-amp, slow, regular waves = theta waves (e.g. daydreaming)
    • sleep stages 3&4 - deepest sleep, brain activity slows down, large amp, delta waves
    • stage 5 - sleep cycle starts moving backwards towards stage 1, beta waves, low amp, fast, regular
  27. Hypnosis
    set of techniques that provides people with suggestions for alterations in their perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and behaviours

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