Data Management and Backup
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What is the applications folder?
Applications—Often called the local Applications folder, this is the default location for applications available to all local users. Only administrative users can make changes to the contents of this folder.
What is the library folder?
Often called the local Library folder, this is the default location for ancillary system and application resources available to all local users. Once again, only administrative users can make changes to the contents of this folder.
What is the system folder?
This folder contains resources required by the operating system for primary functionality. Users very rarely have to make changes to the contents of this folder. Even administrative users are unable to make changes to items in the System folder without reauthenticating.
What is the users folder?
This is the default location for local user home folders. Specific access to home folder items is discussed in Chapter 2, “User Accounts.”
What is the developer folder?
Developer (Optional)—This optional folder contains the Apple Xcode Developer Tools. This is not part of the standard installation, but it’s still a fundamental part of the system, and its installer can be found on the Mac OS X Install DVD. Similar to the Applications and Library folders, the Developer folder can be changed only by an administrative user.
Where are all mac os x specific system resources found?
Within the various Library folders throughout the system volume.
How do you classify system resources?
- System resources can be generally categorized as any resource that is not a general-use application or user file.
- That’s not to say that applications and user data can’t be found in the Library folders. On the contrary, the Library folder is to keep both user and system resources organized and separated from the items you use every day. This keeps the Applications folder and user home folders free from system resource clutter.
What is the following system resource, Application support?
This folder can be found in both the user and local Libraries. Any ancillary data needed by an application may end up in this folder. For example, it often contains help files or templates for an application. Once again, application resources are placed here to keep the Applications folders tidy.
In library what is "extension"?
Extensions—Also called kernel extensions, these items are found only in the system and local Library folders. Extensions are low-level drivers that attach themselves to the kernel, or core, of the operating system. Extensions provide driver support for hardware, networking, and peripherals. Extensions load and unload automatically, so there is little need to manage them, as is common in other operating systems. Extensions are covered to greater detail in Chapter 9, “Peripherals and Printing.”
In library what is fonts folder?
Fonts—Found in every Library folder, fonts are files that describe typefaces used for both screen display and printing. Font management is covered in the “Managing Font Resources” section later in this chapter.
What are frameworks? Where are they found?
Found in every Library folder, frameworks are repositories of shared code used among different parts of the operating system or applications. Frameworks are similar to extensions in that they load and unload automatically, so again there is little need to manage these shared code resources. You can view your Mac’s currently loaded frameworks from the /Applications/Utilities/System Profiler application.
In the library what are Keychain folders?
Keychains—Found in every Library folder, keychains are used to securely store sensitive information, including passwords, certificates, keys, website forms, and notes. Keychain technology is covered previously in Chapter 2, “User Accounts.”
In the library folder what are LaunchDaemons and LaunchAgents?
LaunchDaemons and LaunchAgents—These items can both be found in the local and system Libraries, and LaunchAgents can also be found in the user’s library. These Launch items are used to define processes that start automatically via the launchd process. Mac OS X uses many background processes, which are all started by launchd. Furthermore, every single process is a child of the launchd process. LaunchAgents are for processes that need to start up only when a user is logged in, whereas LaunchDaemons are used to start processes that will always run in the background even when there are no users logged in. More about launchd can be found in Chapter 10, “System Startup.”
In your library folders what are logs?
Logs—Many system processes and applications archive progress or error messages to log files. Log files can be found in every local Library folder. Log files are viewed using the /Applications/Utilities/Console application.
In library folders what is PreferencesPane?
PreferencePanes—PreferencePanes can be found in any Library folder. These items are used by the System Preferences application to provide interfaces for system configuration. System Preferences usage is covered in Chapter 1, “Installation and Initial Setup.”
In Library folders what is Preferences?
Preferences—Preferences, found in both local and user libraries, are used to store system and application configuration settings. In other words, every time you configure a setting for any application or system function, it is saved to a preference file. Because preferences play such a critical role in system functionality, they are often the cause of software problems. Troubleshooting preference files is covered in Chapter 6, “Applications and Boot Camp.”
In Library what are StartUp Items?
Startup Items—Startup Items, found in only the local and system Libraries, are precursors to LaunchAgents and LaunchDaemons. Starting with Mac OS X 10.5, Apple is officially discouraging the use of Startup Items. In fact, you will have Startup Items only if you’ve installed third-party software that hasn’t been updated. In Mac OS X 10.6 the launchd process will still support many Startup Items, but this will probably not be true for future versions.
What are the four system resource domains?
Each user has his own Library folder in his home folder for resources. When resources are placed here, only the user has access to them. Also, a user can have his own Applications folder in his home folder.
Both the root Applications and root Library folders are part of the local resource domain. This is why they are known as the local Applications and local Library folders. Any resources placed in these two folders are available to all local user accounts. By default, only administrative users can make changes to local resources.
- Network Mac OS X can access system resources and applications from a network file share. Administrators must configure an automounted share in order to enable the Network resource domain. Configuring automounted shares goes beyond the scope of this guide. However, it is covered in another reference guide, Apple Training Series: Mac OS X Server Essentials v10.6.
Finally, the system domain encompasses all the items necessary to provide core system functionality. There are many hidden items at the root of the system volume that make up the system resource domain, but the only one you will see in the Finder is the root System folder. In many cases, you do not need to add or manage any resources here.
Kernel Extensions are also called?
What do kernel extensions (extensions) do?
Extensions provide driver support for hard- ware, networking, and peripherals. Extensions load and unload automatically, so there is little need to manage them, as is common in other operating systems.
What does launchd do?
Launch items are used to define processes that start automatically via the launchd process
If similar resources are found in the user library and the regular which will be used?
With four different domains containing resources, there is a strong likelihood for overlap in resources, meaning there may be multiple copies of similar resources available to the system and user at any given time. The system is designed to handle this by searching for resources from the most specific, those in the user domain, to the least specific, those in the system domain. If multiple similar resources are discovered, the system will use the resource most specific to the user.
What takes precedence over managing fonts?
Fontbook or a third-party app?
third party app
Where will fonts be installed by default?
- In the users font library.
- If you are an admin the choice is given to you to install in the local library (local being the machine).
What will font book do before enabling a font?
It will validate it to see if the font is compromised.
You can disable fonts how?
Clicking on the diable fonts button in font book
How do you resolve duplicates?
In font book go to Edit > Resolve Duplicates
If the system is having font issues what can you do to troubleshoot?
Command-A keyboard combination to select all the fonts. Choose File > Validate Fonts to start the validation process.
To hide something you can't do it in finder, you can only do it via? What are the commands to hide and unhide?
- You have to do it via the command line.
- To hide you type:
- chflags hidden filename
- to unhide
- chflags nohidden filename
What are the 3 primary file system shortcuts that OS x uses?
—These shortcuts are a holdover from the classic Mac OS but have been updated for Mac OS X duties. Aliases can be created with the Finder but are useless in the command line. Command line tools think that aliases are nothing more than data files and do not know how to follow their references back to the original items. Aliases, however, are more resilient than other shortcut types in that if the original item is replaced or moved, the alias will almost never lose the original item.
- Symbolic Links—These shortcuts are part of the traditional UNIX file system and are simple pointers to the file system path of the original item. Thus, if you move the original item, the symbolic link will be broken. However, replacing the original item
- works because the path remains the same. You can create symbolic links with the ln command. The Finder cannot create symbolic links, but it can follow them to the original item. An example use of symbolic links in Mac OS X is the way the system
- layout stores several fundamental UNIX folders in the /private folder but also makes those items available at the root of the file system using symbolic links.
—These shortcuts are also part of the traditional UNIX file system and are actual additional references to the original item. Think of a normal file as two parts; first, the bits on the physical drive that make up the file’s actual content, and second, a name that points to those bits. A hard link is an additional name that points to the same bits on the physical drive. You can also use the ln command to create hard links. The Finder cannot create hard links, but it can follow them. An example use of hard links in Mac OS X is for Time Machine backups. Time Machine uses hard links to reference items that have not changed since the previous backup, thus saving a tremendous amount of space. Finally, Mac OS X is unique in its ability to use hard links of both files and folders; again, this is to support Time Machine backups.
4 ways to make an alias
- Ctrl L
- from finder window click on gear
- Right click, make alias
- From finder File > Make Alias
- Click and drag the original item while holding down the Option and Command keys to drop an alias in another location. This is the only method that doesn’t append the word “alias” to the new alias filename.
The only caveat to an alias is?
The original item has to remain on the original volume. The original can be renamed as well.
Right clicking or control-clicking on an alias will do what?
Show you the original item.
If an alias is broken what will happen?
You will be presented with an opportunity to fix the alias.
ln filename creates? ln -s filename creates?
- ln creates a hardlink
- ln -s creates a symbolic link
ln -s MyFolder MyFolderSymLink
Deleting hardlinks will delete the original items?
Deleting Original items will delete the hardlinks?
F and F
Removing additional hard links will not delete the original item. Furthermore, deleting the original item will not delete the hard links; they still point to the same bits on the disk, which won’t be freed until there are no links left to them.
Hardlinks and original items share what?
The same bits on the physical drive.
What is metadata used for?
To describe data.
What are the most basic forms of metadata?
names, paths, modification dates, and permissions.
Software bundles or packages often include:
- Executable code for multiple platforms
- Document description files
- Media resources such as images and sounds
- User interface description files
- Text resources
- Resource forks
- Resources localized for specific languages
- Private software libraries and frameworks
- Plug-ins or other software to expand capability
how do you access package contents?
Right click > show package contents
Launch Services does what?
Launch Services identifies the file based on its type and then references an application registration database to determine which application should open the file.
Will launch service override settings be global (all users) or just to local user?
just to local user
Where are custom launch services saved?
- ~/Library/Preferences folder
Using your mouse how do you change the application to open the specified file with?
Hold down option and choose always open with
What are Quick Look plug-ins?
- Quick Look is able to preview an ever-growing variety of file types using a plug-in technology.
- Each Quick Look plug-in is designed to preview specific types of files. Many Quick Look plug-ins are included by default, but Apple and third-party developers can create additional plug-ins to expand Quick Look’s preview capabilities. Included Quick Look plug-ins enable you to:
Preview any audio or video file that can be decoded by QuickTime
- Preview a variety of graphics files, including many digital camera files, PDF files, EPS
- files, and any standard graphics file
Preview a variety of productivity files including standard text files, script files, and files created by the iWork and Microsoft Office suites
- Quick Look plug-ins, like any other system resource, are stored inside the various Library
- folders. Preview a variety of Internet-centric files including mailboxes, iChat transcripts, and web archives
Will Spotlight index local and external volumes?
Yes. Local once it is ready to do so. External once they are attached
This does not include read only such as cd's
Spotlight will allow you to see items you don't have privs to do so. T or F
- Even though Spotlight indexes every item on a volume, it will automatically filter search results to show only items that the current user has permissions
- to access.
Spotlight plug-ins allow for:
- Search via basic file metadata, including name, file size, creation date, and modification date
- Search via media-specific metadata from picture, music, and video files, includingtime code, creator information, and hardware capture information
- Search through the contents of a variety of file types, including text files, iLife related files and databases, Photoshop files, PDF files, iWork files, and Microsoft Office files
- Search through personal information like Address Book contacts and iCal calendar events
- Search for correspondence information like the contents of Mail emails and iChat chat transcripts
- Search for highly relevant information like your favorites or web browser bookmarks and history
How do you stop a new volume from being indexed?
By setting manually setting spotlight to ignore the volume
how do you resolve problematic spotlight searches?
By adding and removing a volume once it has been indexed.
What are disk images?
Disk images are files that contain entire virtual drives and volumes. Mac OS X relies on disk images for several core technologies, including software distribution, system imaging, NetBoot, FileVault, and network Time Machine backups. Disk images are also useful as a personal archive tool.
OS X supports disk images that are how big?
Disk Image has several formats what are they? explain each one.
—Disk images can be read-only or read/write. They can also be a set size or expandable as a sparse disk image. Sparse disk images will take up only as much space as necessary and automatically grow as you add items to them.
- Compression—Read-only disk images can be compressed to save space. With a compressed
- disk image, any free space becomes negligible in size, and most other files average a 50 percent reduction in size.
—Any disk image can be protected with a password and encrypted with strong 128-bit or 256-bit AES encryption. Choosing a higher bit rate is more secure but degrades performance. This feature is useful for securing data stored on otherwise unsecure volumes like removable drives and network shares. The encryption always happens on the local computer, so even if the disk image file is physically stored externally, as on a network file share, the data is always encrypted as it travels across the connection.
- File system—Disk images can contain any partition scheme or volume
- Mac OS X supports, including optical media formats. Details regarding
- between file system options are covered in Chapter 4, “File Systems.”
Images can be created from what?
- User Accounts
What option allows the for the dmg to adjust in size?
Sparse option from image format.
What is the caveat about making an image from a volume?
Disk Image can only make images of volumes that it can unmount temporarily.
How much space do you need to create a compressed image?
You need about twice as much space. Once to create the image and a second time to compress the image.
Time machine can save to where?
Anything attached to the machine that isn't the primary drive.
What is one problem with Time Machine?
It can't save large files over and over again. It will take up too much space. The changes won't stick regardless if changes are only a few bytes. It will recopy the entire file.
How can you reveal hidden files?
From the command line.
Spotlight uses what to provide robust searches?
The metadata in the files.
What are the four default top-level folders visible in the Finder?
The four default top-level folders visible in the Finder are: Applications, containing applications all local users have access to; Library, containing system resources all local users have access to; System, containing necessary system resources; and finally, Users, containing all the local user home folders.
What are six common system resources? What purpose does each resource serve? Where are they located in the file hierarchy?
Six common system resources are: extensions, which attach themselves to the system kernel to provide hardware and peripheral driver support; frameworks, which are shared code libraries that provide additional software resources for both applications and system processes; fonts; preference files, which contain application and system configuration information; LaunchAgents and LaunchDaemons, used by launchd to provide services that automatically start when they are needed or at system startup; and finally, logs, which are text files that contain error and progress entries from nearly any application or system service.
What are the four system resource domains? What purpose does each domain serve?
- The four system resource domains are: User, containing applications and system
- resources specific to each user account; Local, containing applications and system resources available to all users on the local Mac; Network (optional), containing applications and system resources available to any Mac that has an automated network share; and finally, System, containing applications and system resources required to provide basic system functionality.
Why does the Finder hide certain folders at the root of the system volume?
The Finder hides traditional UNIX resources from average users because they don’t need to have access to those items. If users do need access to these UNIX items, they can access them from the Terminal.
What two methods can be used to hide items from the Finder?
The Finder will not show items with periods at the beginning of their filename, or items with the hidden file flag enabled.
What are resource forks and why have they fallen out of favor?
Resource forks are used to make the file system appear less complex. Data forks and resource forks are combined to appear as one single item in the file system. They have fallen out of favor because they are not directly compatible with non-Mac OS volumes, nor are they extensible.
What are some of the common file flags and extended attributes used by Mac OS X?
Common file flags include the locked flag, which locks files from changes, and the hidden flag, which hides the item in the Finder. Common extended attributes used in the Finder are setting an item’s color label, stationary pad option, hide extension option, and Spotlight comments.
What does Mac OS X use bundles or packages for?
- Bundles and packages are used to combine complex items into individual folders. Packages have the additional advantage of appearing as a single item in the Finder. This allows software developers to combine resources into a single item and prevents
- users from messing with those resources.
How does the system identify which application to open when a user double-clicks on a file?
Files are identified either by their file type attributes or their filename extension. Launch Services maintains a database of known applications and which file types they can open. When you double-click on a file in the Finder, Launch Services tries to find an appropriate match. You can override the default application selection in the Finder.
What three common UNIX commands support Mac file system metadata?
Three common UNIX commands that have been updated to support Mac file system metadata are cp, mv, and rm.
What are the differences between zip archives and disk images?
Zip archives are created with the Finder from a specific selection of items. Zip archives are compatible with many operating systems. On the other hand, disk images are created using Disk Utility and allow you to create highly flexible archive volumes that can contain nearly anything.
How does the Spotlight search service use metadata?
- The Spotlight search service creates index databases of file system metadata so that it
- can perform normally time-intensive searches nearly instantly.
Where does Spotlight store its metadata index databases? How about the Spotlight plug-ins?
Spotlight metadata index databases are stored at the root of every volume in a /.Spotlight-V100 folder. However, a FileVault user’s database is stored in his encrypted home folder. Also, the Mail application maintains its own database in each user’s home folder at ~/Library/Mail/Envelope Index. Spotlight plug-ins can be located in any Library in a folder named Spotlight.
What backup destinations does Time Machine support?
Time Machine can back up to any Mac OS X Extended volume, including volumes from disk images stored on an AFP share from a Mac OS X or Mac OS X Server.
How does Time Machine maintain a backup history of the file system?
Time Machine starts with a full copy of the file system; then it records any changes to the file system and only copies the changes. It creates a simulation of the full file system using hard links for files that have not changed.
What are some privacy and security concerns with the Spotlight service?
Though Spotlight indexes file and folder permissions, it will allow other users to search the contents of locally attached nonsystem volumes when ownership is ignored on those volumes.
What types of files are omitted from Time Machine backups?
Time Machine always ignores temporary files, Spotlight indexes, items in the Trash, and anything else that can be considered a cache. Time Machine will also ignore any files an application has defined as exempt, or any files you have defined as exempt in the Time Machine preferences.
Why is Time Machine inefficient at backing up large databases?
Time Machine is inefficient at backing up large databases because it must back up the entire database file every time any change, no matter how small, is made to the database.
Why might a previously backed-up item be no longer available in Time Machine?
A previously backed-up item will not be available if your backup volume has become full and Time Machine has had to start deleting older items to make room for newer items.
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