Bio Exam 4 final 2 diversity of life

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Bio Exam 4 final 2 diversity of life
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2010-12-07 18:21:52
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Bio Exam 4 final 2 diversity of life
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  1. Aristotle
    • 384-322 BC
    • first to develop classification scheme for life
  2. Carl von Linne/ Carolus Linnaeus
    developed classification system we use now
  3. 8 categories of life in modern classification system
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
    • the more categories two forms share the more recently they shared a common ancestor
  4. Genus/species
    • Genus always capitalized
    • species always lowercase
    • always both italicized
  5. _________ has played the most important role in classifying life
    anatomy
  6. 5 Kingdoms
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
    • Fungi
    • Monera
    • Protista
  7. prokaryotes
    organisms whose cells lack a nucleus and other organelles
  8. eukaryotes
    organisms that have their genetic materials in a nucleus
  9. Kingdom Monera has 2 distinct organisms
    • True Bacterium
    • Archaean
    • which are less related than a mushroom and an elephant
  10. prokaryotes have these kingdoms
    • 15 Kingdom of bacteria
    • 3 Kingdoms of archaea
  11. 3 most common shapes of organisms in prokaryotes are
    • spherical
    • rod-like
    • spiral
  12. protective endospores
    • new cell like structure that contains DNA a few enzymes and very thick protective coat
    • some can survive boiling for 2 hrs
    • easily dispersed, inhaled deeply in lungs
    • anthrax
  13. prokaryotes reproduce by
    • binary fission
    • simple asexual cell division
    • under ideal conditions can reproduce every 20 minutes
  14. prokaryotes can survive in
    • hot springs
    • hot vents
    • extreme salt concentrations
    • antarctic sea ice
  15. prokaryotes are nature's
    • recyclers
    • decomposers - except plastic
  16. some bacteria threaten human life
    • tetanus - uncontrollable muscles contractions
    • botulinus - anaerobic bacteria that grows in improperly canned foods and causes poisoning
  17. clostridium botulinum
    • causes botulinus
    • also used in making botox - selectively paralyzes muscles to help reduce wrinkles
  18. Yersinia pestis
    • black plague
    • spread by fleas
  19. bacterial threats
    • tetanus
    • botulinus
    • black plague
    • necrotizing fasciitis- flesh eating disease
    • lyme disease - flesh discoloration debilitating
    • yeast infection
  20. viral infections
    • AIDS
    • tuberculosis
    • gonorrhea
    • syphilis
    • cholera
  21. invented the microscope
    • Anton van Leeuwenhoek
    • 1674
  22. eukaryotes, protists
    • reproduce by mitotic cell division
    • photosynthesis
    • predators
    • parasitic
  23. protists
    • fungus-like slime molds
    • plant-like algae
    • animal-like protozoans
  24. slime molds
    • absorb nutrition from environment
    • mass of cytoplasm (plasmodium)
    • plasmodium contains thousands of nuclei
  25. algae
    plant-like protists
  26. phytoplankton
    • single celled algae
    • 70% of all photosynthesis on earth, CO2, O2 production
  27. phyla of algae
    • dinoflagellates
    • brown algae
    • green algae
  28. dinoflagellates
    • have 2 whip like flagella and cellulose walls like armor
    • abundant in ocean
    • many bioluminescent
    • corals dependent on them
    • make the red tides - population explosions, kills thousands of fish
  29. brown algae
    • dominate cool coastal water regions
    • almost all are marine
    • giant kelp
  30. green algae
    • ponds and lakes
    • closest relatives to true plants
  31. protozoans/ sarcodines
    • animal like
    • use pseudopods to move and engulf prey
    • amoebas - freshwater sarcodines
  32. other sarcodines
    • foraminiferans
    • radiolarians
    • marine dwellers with beautiful shells
  33. ciliates
    • fresh and salt water
    • have cilia
    • didinium
    • paramecium
  34. fungi
    body is a filamentous structure called mycelium
  35. hyphae
    trunck and roots of fungi
  36. mycelium
    • body of fungi
    • filamentous
  37. types of fungi
    • mushrooms
    • puffballs
    • powdery mildews
  38. fungi characteristics
    • cell walls made of chitin
    • break down nutrients of other organisms
    • secrete digestive juices outside bodies
    • absorb useful building blocks into system
    • reproduce sexually and usu. asexually - spores
    • attack plants- food
    • attack pests - cordyceps in insects
    • attack people - infections
  39. halophiles
    salt loving
  40. alkalophiles
    base loving
  41. acidophiles
    acid loving
  42. thermophiles
    heat loving
  43. more characteristics of fungi
    • can produce toxins
    • can produce antibiotics
    • some are edible
    • some help produce food (yeast)
    • most important decomposers
  44. plants
    • bryophytes
    • tracheophytes
    • photosynthetic
    • have cellulose cell walls
  45. bryophytes
    • non vascular plants
    • need moist environment
    • liverworts and mosses (advanced algae)
  46. tracheophytes
    • vascular plants
    • vessels give support to plant
    • do not make seeds
  47. seedless vascular plants
    • club mosses
    • horsetails
    • ferns
    • reproduce by spores
  48. seed plants
    flowering and non flowering
  49. gymnosperms
    • nonflowering seed plants
    • pines
    • firs
    • spruce
    • hemlock
    • cypress
    • evergreens
    • ginko
    • cycad
  50. angiosperms
    • flowering seed plants
    • most trees,
    • all flowers,
    • grasses
    • grains
    • fruits
    • cacti
    • others
  51. flowers
    • structures that form male and female sex cells
    • attract pollinators
  52. fruit
    mature ovary that surrounds embryo in a seed of an angiosperm
  53. pandemic
    world wide epidemic
  54. epidemic
    regional rapid spread of illness
  55. yeast fermentation produces
    • alcohol
    • CO2
  56. smooth ER
    site of detoxification of many poisons
  57. pleuripotent
    can develop into many types of cells
  58. adult stem cells
    pleuripotent not totipotent
  59. natural selection
    best adapted indivs survive and reproduce
  60. sexual selection
    increased mating success of some individuals
  61. earliest cell lived
    3.5 billion yrs ago
  62. mitochondria evolved from...
    aerobic bacteria
  63. chloroplast evolved from...
    photosynthetic cyanobacteria
  64. vertebrates evolved about...
    500 million yrs ago
  65. shape cocci
    spherical
  66. DNA electrophoresis require
    • power supplies
    • gels
    • buffers
    • micropipetters
  67. shape bacilli
    rod-like
  68. shape spirochete
    spiral
  69. observation
    "flies are attracted to spoiled meat"
  70. hypothesis
    proposed explanation for the observation
  71. experiment
    testing the hypothesis
  72. conclusion
    drawn from experimental results
  73. order of scientific method
    • observation
    • hypothesis
    • experiment (controlled)
    • results
    • conclusions
    • theory

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