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What type of things cause more stress, major stressful events or daily hassles?
Why do minor stressors tend to be more related to mental health than major stressful events?
b/c they tend to add up and they tend to last
What does stress lies in the eye of the beholder mean?
one event may be stressful to one person and not another
What are the 3 types of conflict?
What is approach-approach?
- least stressful
- both results are positive
What is avoidance-avoidance?
- most stressful
- both results are negative
What is approach-avoidance?
1 choice and 2 aspects (either pos or neg)
The bigger the change, the more effort it requires to adjust. Is is more stressful or less stressful?
Pressure involves ________ or ________ that one behave in a certain way.
expectations or demands
When people are under stress, they often react ________.
What does the U-hypothesis mean?
arousal causes stress
What is the general adaption syndrome?
model of body's stress response in 3 stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
Explain giving up:
when confronted with stress you just give up & withdraw
What is learned helplessness?
Explain striking out at others:
person under stress lets out frustration/anger onto others
Explain indulging oneself:
lots of stress may cause excessive behavior like shopping, smoking, eating, drinking
Explain defensive coping:
unconscious behavior, unpleasant emotions like anxiety & guilt
Explain constructive coping:
- 1.confronting problem
- 3. learning to reorganize
- 4.making an effort
What does a Type A personality include?
competitive, impatient, & anger
Type A persons are more or less likely to be prone to coronary heart disorder?
Type B persons are...
more relaxed, layed back, 1 thing at a time
Mental stress causes
Your immune system is _______ under stress.
What are 2 key variables that help reduce the negative impact of stress?
Smoking _______ the likelihood of developing a surprisingly large range of diseases.
Overeating has a _______ effect on a persons health.
Lack of exercise is linked to _______ _______.
HIV is transmitted through person to person contact involving the exchange of ______, ______, & ______.
bodily fluids, semen, & blood
People high in anxiety and low in self esteem tend to report more or less symptoms of illness than others?
Who was Albert Ellis?
cognitive therapist who developed the Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET)
What is the ABC model?
A Activating event -> B Belief system -> C Consequence
How does the medical model explain abnormal behavior?
it assumes abnormal behavior is like other forms of illness,
What are the 2 criticisms of teh medical model?
- use of the word "sick"
- derogatory labels
What are the 3 criteria of abnormal behavior?
- maladaptive behavior
- personal/subjective distress
What is deviance?
- out of the ordinary
- moving away from the norm
What is maladaptive behavior?
- causes problems w/ daily things
- agoraphobia etc
What is personal/subjective distress?
- psychological disorder
Do different cultures have the same criteria of abnormal behavior?
No, what is normal in 1 culture may be abnormal in another culture
Is there a sharp boundry existing between normal & abnormal behavior?
What is used for pyschologists and psychiatrists to diagnose psychological disorders?
DSM is said to be
Explain: Anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder
- chronic, high level of anxiety not tied to a threat
- free floating anxiety
Explain: Anxiety disorders: Phobis disorder
persistent, irrational fear of an object or situation
Explain: Anxiety disorders: panic disorder & agoraphobia
recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety unexpectedly
Explain: Anxiety disorders: OCD
persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts, rituals...washing hands
Explain: Anxiety Disorders: PSD
psychological disturbance after a traumatic event: rape, accident
What are psychosomatic diseases?
- genuine physical ailments
- emotional distress
What are somatoform disorders?
physical ailments with No authentic organic basis
Explain: Somatoform disorders: somatization disorder
history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin
Explain: Somatoform disorders: conversion disorder
- significant loss of physical function
- usually in a single organ system...vision, hearing
Explain: somatoform disorders: hypochondriasis
constant worry about developing physical illness
Explain: Dissociative disorders: dissociative amnesia & fugue
- DS: sudden loss fo memory for important personal info
- DF: when people lose their memory for their whole life including personal identity
Explain: Dissociative disorders: dissociative identity disorder
- multiple personality disorder
- 1 person has 2 or more very different personalities
Explain: mood disorders: unipolar
experience depression only
Explain: mood disorders: bipolar
experience depression and mania
What happens in major depressive disorders?
people show persistent feelings of sadness and despair, lose appetite, can't sleep, and lose interest in activities
What happens in a manic episode?
person's mood becomes elevated to the point of euphoria. self esteem sky rockets
Explain Schizophrenic disorders
- split mind
- irrational thought (delusions), hallucinations, disturbed emotion
How many types of treatments are there?
few hundred different approaches
What is insight therapy?
What is behavior thereapy?
dont do much talking, focus on behavior to change the unwanted behavior
What is biomedical therapy?
Who seeks therapy?
about 15% of population
What the difference between clinical psychologist & counseling psychologist?
- CliPsy- treatment of more serious disorders
- CouPsy- deal with everyday adjustments (marriage, stress, career)
- only give insight treatment
What are Pyschiatrists?
- medical drs. specialize in diagnosis & treatment of psychological disorders
- can employ both biomedical and insight treatments
Explain: insight therapies: psychoanalysis
developed by Sigmund Freud, treats by discovering teh childhood conflict that led to the behavior
Explain: insight therapies: client-centered therapy
providing a supportive emotional climate for the client
Explain: insight therapies: cognitive therapy
detecting clients negative thinking and changing them
Explain: insight therapies: group therapy
group members provide support and acceptance
Explain: behavior therapies: systematic desensitization
Explain: behavior disorders: aversion therapy
pairing a want with undesirable response
Explain: biomedical therapies: antianxiety drugs
relieve tension, nervousness
Explain: biomedical therapies: antipsyochotic drugs
reduces psychotic symptoms, mental confusion, hallucinations
Explain: biomedical therapies: antidepressant drugs
gradually elevate mood
Explain: biomedical therapies: lithium
used to control mood swings in people with bipolar disorders
Explain: biomedical therapies: electroconvulsive therapy
delivers electric current to brain, causing cortical seizure then convulsions
What is an eclectic therapist?
involves using ideas and techniques from a variety of therapeutic approaches
What does the community mental health movement emphasize?
- local, community based care
- reduced dependence on hospitalization
- prevention of psychological disorders
What does deinstitutionalization mean?
whenever possible the mentally ill should be treated at community based facilities that emphasize outpatient care
What would you like to do?
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