Ecology Final

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Ecology Final
2010-12-06 22:20:15

Ecology Final
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  1. Traits associated with K selected species:
    • Slow developing young
    • Large parental investment
    • Long life expectancy
  2. Physical effects of fire:
    • Ground surface heats faster
    • Greater light penetration
    • Affects nutrient turn-over
  3. Negative exponential decay model of dispersal:
  4. Synergistically refers to:
    Combined effects are greater than the sum of the parts.
  5. You should be able to find r-selected species in:
    Unstable environments
  6. A seed bank is:
    Viable seeds that are in the soil and litter
  7. Makes good ecologists:
    • Strong natural history background
    • Good quantitative skills
  8. An adaptation is:
    • An environmental process by which organisms become better adapted to their environments
    • A geneetically determined characteristics which enhances the ability to cope with its environment
  9. Soil profile: Rich in humus, consisting of partly decomposed organic material mixed with mineral soil:
  10. Who coined the term ecology?
    Ernst Haeckle
  11. Range expansions can occur through:
    • Diffusion
    • Jump dispersal
  12. Iteroparous organisms
    Breed>one time
  13. Poikilotherm can be defined as:
    An animal whose body temperature is similar to the ambient temperature
  14. Ways an organisms can cope/not cope with environmental changes
    • Die
    • Physiological changes
    • Behavioral changes
    • Changes is success
  15. Ethology is:
    Scientific study of behavior
  16. Fitness is
    Genetic contribution by an individual's descendants to future generations of a population
  17. Dispersal:
    Movement of an individual away from its natal or "home state"
  18. Plants that are adapted to wet condition:
  19. Plants that are adapted to dry conditions:
  20. Plants that are adapted to salty conditions:
  21. Plants that are adapted to not too moist or too dry conditions:
  22. The ability to make high concentrations of urine:
    Long loop of Henle
  23. High surface to volume ratio:
    Rapid rate of water loss
  24. Store large amounts of water:
  25. Kangaroo rats:
    Ability to survive without any free water
  26. Advantages and disadvantages of sociality:
    • GOOD: Social facilitaion, Beater effect, Mutual vigilance
    • BAD: Depletion of resources, Mate competition, More visible to predators
  27. Two types of anticuckoldry mechanisms:
    • Vaginal Plug
    • Sperm competition
  28. Examples of indirect effects:
    • Apparent competition
    • Diffuse competition
    • Habitat modification
  29. 1,000 calories in a plant: 3 trophic levels: How many calories make it to the 3rd trophic level?
  30. Useful locations to conduct paleocological research:
    • Caves
    • Bogs
    • Tar pits
  31. Primary consumer, generally:
  32. Primary succession:
    • Lava field
    • Exposed sand dunes
  33. Pleistocene overkill model:
    • Humans arrived in United States 10k-20k years ago
    • Early humans are responsible for extinction of North American megafauna
  34. Trade winds run, generally:
    from 30 degrees N. to the equator
  35. Methane production:
    • Anaerobic environments
    • Digestive tracts of termites and cattle
  36. Structures of an ecological community:
    • Species composition
    • Trophic
    • Temporal
    • Guilds
  37. Community ecology: resistance is:
    Tendancy of a community to undergo reletively little change following perturbations (disturbances)
  38. Pleistocene refugia is:
    Locations of species have been able to survive following the retreat of glaciers and successional changes.
  39. Hetertrophs are:
    • Fungi
    • Animals
  40. Examples of secondary succession:
  41. Anaerobic refers to:
    Without oxygen
  42. Fundamental niche
    Range of resources a species can potentially use
  43. Region on plant which receive the most solar energy per unit area:
  44. Examples of ecological niches
    • Desert granivores
    • Flying (birds, bats) insectivores
  45. Paleoecology inference is often based upon:
    • Palynology
    • Plant macrofossils
    • Bones
  46. Sere is:
    Individual stages in succession
  47. Species which may be found in a pioneer community:
    Lichen and mosses
  48. Cascading trophic interactions involve:
    Alternating changes in biomass dependent on the tertiary consumer
  49. Uniformitarianism applied to ecology is:
    Ecological processes have been uniform through time
  50. Hydrological cycle, transpiration is:
    Plants uptake water through their roots and release it through their leaves
  51. Ecosystems from lowest to highest in terms of primary productivity:
    Desert<Grassland<Temperate forest<Reefs
  52. Four basic components of population dynamics:
    • Death rates
    • Birth rates
    • Immigration
    • Emigration
  53. Saprobism:
    Feeding on: Carrion, dung, dead wood
  54. Aposematic coloration:
    Is a form of warning coloration
  55. Density dependence:
    Factor or factors affecting population size whose intensity of action varies with density: That is, densities at time t influence densities at time t+x
  56. Reasonable biotic potential for birds:
  57. Allee effect is:
    A situation of higher population growth rate at a population desity above the minimum
  58. Fires, floods, and ice-storms are examples of factors contributing to:
    Density independent population dynamics
  59. Equation which assumes continuous and unrestrained population growth:
  60. Commensalism is:
    Neutral effect on strong species and positive effect on the weak species
  61. Best describes parasitoids:
    Flies or wasps that live as parasites within the egg, larvae, or pupa of another insect, consuming its tissues; eventually emerge and the host dies.
  62. Parasites have life histories adapted to:
    • Stable environments
    • High reproductive rates
  63. Asymmetrical competition is:
    Where one species is a stronger competitor than another
  64. "Currency" for measuring optimal foraging:
  65. Secondary compounds:
    • Help plants reduce competition
    • Contribute to plant defenses
  66. Types of growth rate population dynamics (plotted on a graph):
    • Monotonic (straight horizontal line-No growth)
    • Eruptive (Big jump in population growth)
    • Cyclic (cycles: an even frequency)
    • Chaotic (Random peaks and valleys)
  67. "a" represents:
    "c" represents
    • a=High mortality rates at birth
    • c=Low mortality rate at birth
  68. Which line is a type I functional response?
  69. The figure illustrates:
    Ghost of competition past
  70. The picture shows:
    Inverse correlation between intrinsic rate of increase and body size
  71. What does each line represent?
    • c=monotonic
    • b=eruptive
    • a=cyclic
    • d=chaotic
  72. Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model: What does A-D represent?
    • D=Predator zero growth isocline
    • B=prey decline, predator increases
    • C=prey zero growth isocline
    • A=Prey decrease, predator decrease
  73. "X" represents:
    Trade winds
  74. What best identifies the interactions below? The driving force.
    Keystone predation
  75. What best describes the figure:
    Low level of niche overlap
  76. Know the following figure and what it represents for the test!!!
  77. Type of age distribution:
    Relatively stable distribution
  78. What does each letter represent in respects to selection?
    • B=Disruptive
    • C=Stabilizing
    • D=No selection
    • A=Directional
  79. Why type of response for each letter?
    • A=Good competitor
    • C=Handles stress well
    • D=Handles disturbance well
    • B=Intermediate life history
  80. Biome is:
    Large, distinct ecosystem characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals; anywhere on Earth
  81. Overall appearance of vegetation: all characteristics
  82. What biome dominates Earth's surface?
  83. 2 types of Tundra:
    • Arctic
    • Alpine
  84. Name this biome:
    Alpine Tundra
  85. Name this biome:
  86. Name this biome:
    Cloud forest
  87. Name this biome:
  88. Name this biome:
    Temperate deciduous forest
  89. Name this biome:
  90. Name this biome:
  91. Name this biome:
    Arctic Tundra-In winter covered in snow
  92. Name this biome:
  93. Name this biome:
  94. Name this biome:
    Southeast pine forest
  95. Name this biome:
    Temperate rain forest
  96. Name this biome:
    Tropical dry forest
  97. Name this biome:
    Tropical hardwood hammock
  98. Name this biome:
    Tropical rainforest
  99. Name this biome:
    Nothern coniferous forest or boreal
  100. Cold year round
    Little precipitation 4-10"
    Nothern latitudes
    Arctic Tundra
  101. Same as arctic tundra, but in higher elevations on mountains st some souther latitudes
    Alpine tundra
  102. Transition zone between tuntra and boreal forest
  103. Dominated by spruce, firs, and aspen
    Low precip. 20"
    Mild summers-long cold winters
    Like tundra, HIGH insect pop
    Boreal or northern coniferous forest
  104. Simular to northern coniferous, only at upper elevations in mountainous regions
    Montane forest
  105. The biome we live in
    Broad leaf trees
    Wide temp. ranges
    Temperate deciduous forest
  106. Long-leaf pine and slash pine
    Fire dependent habitat
    Hot humid summers-cool winters
    Southeast pine forest
  107. Cool summers and cool-cold winters
    High rain fall 80-150"
    Lush vegetation: large conifers and ferns
    Temperate rain forest
  108. Found along coastal regions
    Low elevation moutains
    Cloud forest
  109. Also known as Mediterranean scrub
    20-30" rain
    Moderate winters
    warm to hot summers
    Shrubs dominate
    Fire dependent
  110. <10" rain
    Soil low in organic material
    High in minerals
  111. Precip 10-30"
    Well developed organic layer
    Influenced by rain shadows
    Fire dependent
  112. Transition zone between woodlands and grasslands
    Precip. 30-60"
    Has the classic "African Tree"
  113. Warm, relatively dry
    palm woods typical
    southern Texas and Central America
    Tropical dry forest
  114. Equatorial regions
    Precip. 80-180"
    Two seasons: wet and dry
    Mineral poor soil
    Tropical rainforest
  115. Study of fresh water systems, including physical, chemical, and biological aspects
  116. Low productivity-lakes/ponds
  117. High productivity-lakes/ponds
  118. Clear water
  119. Pond at GSU
  120. Lake superior
  121. In respects to lake zones:
    Shallow area around the shore occupied by rooted vegetation
  122. In respects to lake zones:
    Upper layers of open water:beyond the littoral zone
  123. In respects to lake zones:
  124. In respects to lake zones:
  125. In respects to lake zones:
    No light
  126. In respects to lake zones:
    Open waters
  127. Periphyton
    • Microscopic "plants and animals" attached to macrophyts, rock, any substratum
    • "Slippery Rocks"
  128. Epilimnion
    Warm upper layer of lake waters
  129. Thermocline
    Zone of rapid water temperature change
  130. Hypolimnion
    Cold lake water layer
  131. Two habitats of streams
    • Pools
    • Riffles
  132. The movement of organisms down stream that are carried by water movement
    Down stream drift
  133. 3% salt concentration and covers 75% of the Earth
    Oceanic or marine systems
  134. Peak oceanic diversity occurs at what depth?
  135. Zones in respects of oceanic/marine systems:
    Between low and high tide
  136. Zones in respects of oceanic/marine systems:
    Over continental shelf
  137. Zones in respects of oceanic/marine systems:
    Open ocean
  138. Benthos zones are:
    Zones on the ocean floor
  139. Zones is respects to oceans/marine:
    Occupying the continental shelf floor
  140. Zones is respects to oceans/marine:
    Continental slope
    Bathyal (benthic) zone
  141. Zones in respects to oceans/marine:
    Extensive plains of the open ocean floor-VERY deep
  142. Zones in respects to oceans/marine:
    Deep oceanic trenches
    The hadal zone
  143. Oceanic zone which covers most of the Earth's marine floor