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Functions of Schooling
1. Socialization – teaches cultural norms and values
2. Social integration – molding diverse population into one society
3. Cultural innovation – opportunity for academic research
4. Social placement- reinforces meritocracy (social mobility by merit )
a.Providing child care for working parents
b.Occupies students who would otherwise compete for limited opportunities in the job market
c.Opportunity for social networks (career resource, marriage )
School and Social interactiona.
Self – fulfilling prophecy – describes how self-image can have important consequences for how students perform in school
School and social inequality
social control – a way of controlling people, reinforcing acceptance of the status quo
standardized testing – biased based on class, race or ethnicity – will always exist to some extent
1. reflects our society's dominant culture, minority students placed at a disadvantageb. School tracking – assigning students to different educational program
Public schools vs. private schooling (inequality in schooling)
Problems in Schools
1. Violence – schools do not create violence, violence spills into the schools from the surrounding society
2. Student passivitya.
- A. Bureaucracy
- Rigid uniformity
- Numerical ratings
- Rigid expectations
- Little individual responsibility
- 3. Dropout ratea.
- Dropping out – quitting school before earning a high school diploma
4. Declining academic standards
Functional illiteracy – a lack of reading and writing skills needed for everyday living
Grade inflation- the awarding of ever- higher grades for average work
Current Issues in Eduction
1. School choice – seeks to make schools more accountable to the public
Schooling for profit
2. Home schooling – advocates the poor performance of public schools
3. Schooling people with disabilitiesa.
Mainstreaming – integrating students with disabilities or special needs into overall education program
4. Adult Education
5. Teacher Shortage
Population, Urbanization, and Environment
Demography – the study of population (size composition and distribution of a society's population)
Composition – gender, social class, race, age of population
Distribution – where are they located (living)
Goal- anticipate future needs and trends
1. Fertility – the incidence of childbearing in a country's populationa.
Crude birth rate, the number of live births in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population
2. Mortality – the number of deaths in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population
Crude death rate- number of deaths in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population
Infant mortality rate – the number of death among infants under one year of age for each 1,000 live births in a given year
Life expectancy – the average span of a country's population
3. Migration – the movement of people into and out of a specified territory
In-migration rate movement into a territory calculated as the number of people entering an area for every 1,000 people in a population
Out-migration rate movement out of a territory calcuated as the number of people leaving an area for every 1,000 people in a population
4. Population growth – the size of a society's populationa.
To calculate population growth, demographers subtract the crude death rate from the crude birth rate
5. Population composition- the makeup of a society's population at a given point in time
Sex ratio- the number of males for every 100 females in a nation's population
Age-sex pyramid- a graphic representation of the age and sex of the population