History Final

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History Final
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Introduction American History 7th edition Degler De Santis
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History Final
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  1. Consensual sex between adults of the same gender was legal under Title IX of the Education Act of 1972
    False
  2. Church attendance declined when churches became more active in fighting social problems.
    True
  3. Many of the gains made by women in employment and education came about because of government action.
    True
  4. In July, 1978, the Mormon Church for the first time permitted_______.
    b) women to become full-fledged members of the Priesthood
  5. By 1970, the religious groups that grew most rapidly were the_______.
    b) Churches that emphasized individual salvation and personal fulfillment
  6. One religious group that suffered a significant decline in attendance in America between 1957 and 1975 was_______.
    a) the Catholic Church
  7. What did Alfred Kinsey report in Sex and the Human Male?
    d) The vast majority of American men had experienced some form of sex outside of the bonds of marriage.
  8. Congress passed which of the following symbolic resolutions that reflected America’s religiosity in the 1950s?
    d) All of the above

    • a) a National Day of Prayer
    • b) “In God We Trust” was proclaimed as the national motto and added to folded currency.
    • c) “Under God” was added to the flag salute.
    • d) All of the above
  9. Which of the following is true of Religion in the 1950s?
    d) All of the above

    • a) 95% of Americans claimed some form of religious belief.
    • b) 60% of Americans claimed to attend religious services weekly.
    • c) Evangelists such as Billy Graham and Billy Hargis connected Christianity with the politics of anticommunism.
    • d) All of the above
  10. Until 1973, the American Psychiatric Association labeled homosexuality as_______.
    d) a mental disease
  11. In Reed v. Reed in 1971, the Supreme Court used the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment to Strike Down_______.
    b) discrimination based on sex
  12. Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972_______.
    d) Both b and c

    • a) required that 50% of the positions on college football teams be held by women
    • c) remade the nature of college athletics for women, creating scholarships and other opportunities unheard of previously
  13. Women gathering in groups to air their grievances among themselves was known as_______.
    a) consciousness-raising
  14. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 combined with Executive Orders that prohibited discrimination based on sex to_______.
    d) Both a and b

    • a) force open for women new jobs in private employment
    • b) require that public institutions increase their percentages of female employees
    • d) Both a and b
  15. 5. Dress and hairstyles in the 1960s symbolized ______.
    b) rejection of corporate culture
  16. During the 1960s, a sea change occurred in the attitudes of many Americans toward_______.
    b) sexual relations
  17. The “counterculture” of the 1960s rejected all of the following EXCEPT_______.
    c) quality higher education
  18. Perhaps the most significant difference between the young people of the counterculture and their elders was_______.
    a) the emphasis that the young placed on feeling and emotion
  19. The Port Huron Statement criticized _______.
    b) the combined affluence and injustice in America
  20. The most visible manifestation of the counterculture’s rejection of traditional society was_______.
    a) a revolution in dress and hair style (long hair and denim)
  21. One area of tremendous growth in America between 1960 and 1976 was_______.
    b) college enrollment
  22. Student demonstrations, which began as nonviolent protests, reached their violent peak in September, 1970 with_______.
    b) the bombing of the computer center at the University of Wisconsin, where a researcher was killed
  23. The National Defense Education Act was designed to_______.
    c) provide financial encouragement to instruction and study in science, mathematics, and modern foreign language
  24. Segregation was officially ended with_______.
    c) the Civil Rights Act of 1964
  25. The launch of Sputnik in 1957_______.
    a) challenged America’s self-image as the leader in science and technology
  26. 6. By June 1980, 110,000 refugees entered the United States in a flotilla of small boats from_______.
    c) Cuba
  27. 7. Native Americans asserted themselves in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s by_______.
    d) All of the above

    • a) taking over Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay
    • b) engaging in a shoot-out with federal authorities at Wounded Knee, South Dakota
    • c) writing books like Vine Deloria’s Custer Died for Your Sins.
    • d) All of the above
  28. The head of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee who popularized the slogan “Black Power” was_______.
    c) Stokely Carmichael
  29. The Chicano leader that successfully organized California grape pickers was_______.
    b) Caesar Chavez
  30. Undoubtedly, the most conspicuous and immediate impetus to the belated
    recognition of religious, national, or racial identities was the_______.
    a) black revolution of the 1960s
  31. The great internal migration in the post-war era was_______.
    b) from farms and cities to the suburbs
  32. Which of the following is true of San Francisco’s Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system since its opening in 1972?
    b) It has failed to significantly reduce automobile traffic in the San Francisco Bay area
  33. The movie that offered a sympathetic view of the drug culture was_______
    c) Easy Rider
  34. Sources of anxiety amidst economic plenty included all of the following EXCEPT_______.
    c) a global crash of the internet
  35. It has been estimated that the percentage of products available in the
    chemical industry in 2009 that were not available in 1950 is
    d) at least 50%
  36. The author of To Kill a Mockingbird was_______.
    a) Harper Lee
  37. The pesticide that proved to have a deleterious effect on the reproductive capabilities of Bald Eagles was_______.
    c) DDT
  38. As of 1968, the poverty rate was highest among_______.
    b) the farm population
  39. Beginning in the 1950s, more than half of American workers were_______.
    b) white collar workers
  40. By 1970, the percentage of the workforce employed by government was_______.
    c) 18
  41. The root of the economic growth of the post-war era was_______.
    a) the rise in productivity caused by mechanization
  42. One of the principal forces sustaining the housing boom of the post-War era was_______.
    b) the federal government
  43. The economy of the 1950s and 1960s was dominated by_______
    a) large corporations
  44. What percent of total income belonged to the richest 5 percent of Americans in 1950?
    d) 50
  45. What percent of income belonged to the poorest 20 percent of Americans in 1950?
    d) less than 5
  46. Which of the following occurred between 1959, when statistics were first compiled, and sixteen years later?
    a) The number of Americans living below the poverty line declined from 22% to 11.4%.
  47. Which was a striking fact about the 1950’s and 1960s?
    d) Unemployment never rose above 8%.
  48. What was the novelty of the prosperity between 1945 and 1970?
    a) Lower income groups shared in the prosperity
  49. Between 1950 and 1973, per capita consumption of which of the following significantly increased?
    d) All of the above

    • a) frozen foods
    • b) beef, chicken, and turkey
    • c) hard liquor andwine
    • d) All of the above
  50. In 1973, more people visited ___________ than there were people in the country
    d) National Parks
  51. For the first time in the history of the country, the majority of people in America after 1945 were_______.
    a) female
  52. Popular leisure activities in the thirty years following WWII included_______.
    d) All of the above

    • a) spectator sports, most notably football
    • b) participatory sports such as bowling, golf and skiing
    • c) gardening
    • d) All of the above
  53. Two big issues immediately after WWII were_______.
    a) inflation and labor unrest
  54. The Taft-Hartley Act ______.
    a) banned closed shops
  55. Both President Truman and the Republican Congress were_______.
    b) anti-communist
  56. In Poland, why did Stalin oppose free elections?
    c) He knew the people would vote for the Polish government-in-exile in London that would oppose Stalin’s control.
  57. The Soviets agreed to unilateral American control of Japan when the U.S. agreed to_______.
    b) recognize Soviet control in Romania and Bulgaria
  58. The country that was supplying communist guerrillas in Greece in 1946 was_______.
    c) Yugoslavia under Marshal Tito
  59. In Stalin’s 1946 “Declaration of WWIII” Speech, Stalin_______.
    a) asserted his confidence in the eventual triumph of the communist stystem
  60. What did George Kennan argue?
    d) All of the above

    • a) The Soviet Union suffered from economic and political contradictions.
    • b) The Soviet government lacked the support of its own people.
    • c) The United States needed to contain the Soviet Union until it crumbled from within.
    • d) All of the above
  61. The Truman Doctrine pledged aid to nations ______.
    c) resisting aggression
  62. Dean Acheson’s speech about the dangers of communism in Greece was_______.
    a) the beginning of the domino theory
  63. The Marshall Plan offered aid to _____.
    a) nations of Europe
  64. A major impetus to the Marshall Plan was_______.
    b) to reconstruct capitalist economies as a defense against communism
  65. Stalin instituted the Berlin Blockade in response to_______.
    c) the American introduction of a new German Mark in West Germany
  66. In what is known as the “Clifford Memorandum,” what did Clark Clifford argue?
    c) Soviet Aggressions can be stopped only through counter-pressure from the U.S.
  67. In the Berlin Air Lift, which of the following happened?
    b) The U.S. flew food and other supplies in to citizens of Berlin for over a year.
  68. The NATO alliance included all of these nations EXCEPT ______.
    c) Russia
  69. Why did the Soviets ended their blockade of Berlin?
    b) Stalin had intended to fracture the Western Alliance, but the formation of NATO proved that it had only gotten stronger.
  70. Article IX of the Japanese Constitution called for________.
    a) the elimination of the Japanese military for any purpose whatsoever, forever
  71. The the leader of the communist Revolution in China was________
    a) Mao Ze Dong
  72. Which of the following arguments were contained in NSC-68?
    d) The U.S. must increase its military spending 40%.
  73. The “Miracle of 48” is a reference to________.
    b) Harry Truman’s unexpected electoral victory in 1948
  74. The segregationist “Dixiecrat” Party was led by________.
    c) Strom Thurmond
  75. Henry Wallace favored________.
    a) negotiations with the Soviet Union
  76. Truman’s Program in 1949 was known as the________.
    d) Fair Deal
  77. Which of the following is true of the North Korean invasion of South Korea in 1950?
    b) Stalin denied any involvement and announced that North Korea was acting on its own
  78. The fact that the Soviet Representative was absent on the day of the
    1950 UN Security Council vote to use force in Korea suggests which of
    the following?
    c) The North Koreans were acting on their own.
  79. Which of the following is true of U.S. involvement in Korea?
    b) Korea had symbolic importance in showing the Soviets that the U.S. would not allow the spread of communism.
  80. Under “Operation Rollback,” the American goal in Korea became________.
    a) liberating all of Korea from communism
  81. After the Chinese invasion of North Korea, General Douglas MacArthur called for________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) a blockade of the Chinese coast
    • b) bombings of Manchuria and China’s industrial centers
    • c) dropping a field of radioactive cobalt on the Chinese-North Korean border
    • d) All of the above
  82. President Truman relieved General MacArthur of command due to________
    a) insubordination in the form of a letter from MacArthur to the House minority leader undermining Truman’s policies.
  83. Why did the Peace talks with North Korea stalemated?
    b) Thousands of North Korean POWs held by Americans requested asylum.
  84. The final Armistice to the Korean War________.
    c) returned the border to Status Quo Ante Bellum
  85. The famous trial that convinced many Americans that the U.S. government had been infiltrated by communists was________.
    a) the trial of Alger Hiss
  86. A Senate subcommittee headed by Millard Tydings concluded that Joseph McCarthy’s allegations were________.
    a) a fraud and a hoax
  87. Persons accused by Senator Joseph McCarthy of communist activity included________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) Senator Millard Tydings
    • b) Johns Hopkins Professor Owen Lattimore
    • c) Secretary of Defense George Marshall
    • d) All of the above
  88. When was Joseph McCarthy was Censured by the U.S. Senate?
    • c) Army counsel Joseph Welch revealed that McCarthy had entered altered
    • photographs as evidence in his accusations against the army.
  89. The Democratic candidate that Dwight Eisenhower twice defeated in Presidential elections in 1952 and 1956 was________.
    c) Adlai Stevenson
  90. In the Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954, the Supreme Court________
    b) struck down the “Separate, but equal” doctrine in education.
  91. What happened when Arkansas Governor Orville Faubus used State troops to
    bar the entry of black students to Little Rock’s Central High School?
    a) Eisenhower sent federal paratroopers to escort the black students to classes.
  92. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 induced many school districts to integrate by________.
    a) providing money to school districts based on the number of poor children they educated
  93. The African-American seamstress that refused to surrender her seat on a
    bus to a white person in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955 was________.
    c) Rosa Parks
  94. The preacher from Montgomery, Alabama that would win the 1964 Nobel
    Peace Prize for his work in the Civil Rights movement was________.
    a) Martin Luther King
  95. Which of the following is true concerning the abortion issue at the time that Supreme Court issued its decision in Roe v. Wade?
    d) Both b and c

    • b) Most protestant fundamentalists at the time were essentially unconcerned with the issue.
    • c) The Southern Baptist Convention had voted in 1971 in favor of a
    • resolution supporting a woman’s right to abortion if the health of the
    • mother were threatened.
    • d) Both b and c
  96. The first man to set foot on the moon in 1969 was________.
    a) Neil Armstrong
  97. Soviet leader Nakita Khrushchev did which of the following?
    d) All of the above

    • a) denounced Stalin
    • b) called for peaceful coexistence between the U.S. and Soviet Union
    • c) argued that communism could defeat capitalism by peaceful means
    • d) All of the above
  98. Which of the following is true of the creation of the State of Israel in 1948?
    a) Israel was created by the UN partially because Britain and the U.S. did not want to accept 250,000 Jewish refugees in Europe after WWII.
  99. Why in 1953, did the CIA aid the Shah Reza Pahlavi of Mohammed Mossadegh?
    b) Mossadegh had nationalized Iran’s oil fields.
  100. Why did Eisenhower oppose the British, French, and Israeli invasion of Egypt in 1956?
    c) He believed that it could push Egypt into the Soviet orbit.
  101. Which of the following occurred when the Hungarians staged a revolt against Soviet control in 1956?
    d) None of the above
  102. The primary purpose of American aid to Latin America under the OAS was________.
    b) to prop up the Latin American political and economic systems against communism
  103. Which of the following is true of American involvement in Guatemala in 1954?
    d) Both a and b

    • a) The CIA aided Guatemalan rebels in the overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz.
    • b) Guatemalan President Arbenz expropriated 400,000 acres from the United Fruit Company of Boston
    • d) Both a and b
  104. In the U2 incident in 1960 what happened?
    b) The Soviet Union shot down an American spy plane.
  105. What was one factor that historians believe aided John F. Kennedy in his Presidential debates with Richard Nixon?
    a) Kennedy used Hollywood makeup and Nixon did not.
  106. The Bay of Pigs invasion is best described as________.
    a) a failed U.S.-backed invasion of Cuba by a group of Cuban exiles trained by the CIA
  107. Operation Mongoose is best described as________.
    b) a covert CIA operation to eliminate Fidel Castro in Cuba
  108. Which of the following is true of the Cuban Missile crisis?
    b) Kennedy was criticized for risking a world holocaust in order to show the Soviets his determination.
  109. At the conclusion of the Cuban missile crisis which of the following occurred?
    d) All of the above

    • a) The Soviets agreed to withdraw their missiles from Cuba.
    • b) The U.S. agreed not to invade Cuba.
    • c) The U.S. withdrew missiles from Turkey
    • d) All of the above
  110. John F. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963 by________.
    a) Lee Harvey Oswald
  111. John F. Kennedy’s glamorous wife and First Lady was________.
    b) Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy
  112. The Peace Corps _____.
    c) Sent American volunteers abroad to help poor countries with educational and humanitarian projects
  113. In 1952, the Rosenberg’s were executed for selling atomic bomb secrets to China.
    b) False
  114. The Internal Security Act of 1951 allowed the government to place
    Communists who were American citizens in concentration camps during a
    national emergency.
    True
  115. Joseph McCarthy had very little public support—less than 29 percent—for his anticommunist crusade.
    False
  116. Dwight Eisenhower supported a federal court ruling concerning the integration of Little Rock Central High School by sending in paratroopers to protect the Black students.
    True
  117. The 1957 Civil Rights Bill was the first such legislation passed since Reconstruction
    True
  118. One goal of the Warren Court was to protect individuals from police and government abuse.
    True
  119. Baker versus Carr increased the strength of cities in state legislatures
    True
  120. The United States sent troops into Hungary in 1956 to save the lives of thousands of “freedom fighters.”
    False
  121. The Kennedy Administration had great success in getting its proposals through Congress.
    False
  122. The Soviet Union refused to sign a nuclear test ban treaty
    False
  123. John Kennedy was cautious on civil rights because he needed the support of Southern Democrats in Congress.
    True
  124. Who said he wanted to build a society where “men are more concerned with the quality of their goals than the quantity of their goods”?
    Lyndon Johnson
  125. The 1964 Republican Party platform called for all of these EXCEPT_________
    a civil rights bill.
  126. The Democratic Party platform of 1964 called for all of these EXCEPT_________.
    d) making social security voluntary.
  127. What contributed to part of the success of the Democrats in 1964?
    a) They successfully painted Barry Goldwater as a warmonger.
  128. The Republicans’ “Southern Strategy” was predicated on_________.
    playing on the racial fears of white southern conservatives
  129. Northeastern Republicans led by Nelson Rockefeller condemned the Southern Strategy as_________.
    All of the above

    • a) racist
    • b) immoral
    • c) exclusive
    • d) All of the above
  130. The Voting Rights Act of 1965_________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) struck down voter qualifications that discriminated against blacks
    • b) required that any new electoral changes be cleared with the Justice Dept.
    • c) provided federal examiners and federal marshals to oversee and enforce federal election laws
    • d) All of the above
  131. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 provided for all of the following EXCEPT_________.
    d) an end to discrimination in voting
  132. In 1965, Lyndon Johnson sent Marines into which Caribbean island to prevent an alleged Communist coup ______.
    Dominican Republic
  133. Martin Luther King was assassinated in 1968 by_________.
    James Earl Ray
  134. After WWII, why did President Truman favored the return of Vietnam to French control?
    Truman desired French friendship in the Cold War struggle against the Soviet Union.
  135. Why did President Eisenhower oppose the use of air strikes to aid the French against Vietnamese rebels in 1954 because _____.
    Eisenhower did not believe the Viet Minh could be defeated with air strikes.
  136. Under the Geneva Agreement of 1954 which of the following is true?
    Vietnam was partitioned into a communist north and capitalist south.
  137. American military involvement in Vietnam began_________.
    in 1954 when Eisenhower sent 675 military advisors
  138. American-backed South Vietnamese Premier Ngo Dinh Diem_________.
    had lived in exile in the United States
  139. Why did John F. Kennedy increased the number of American advisors in South Vietnam to 16,000?
    It was part of the American strategy to contain the spread of communism on a global basis.
  140. Under the “strategic hamlet” program, which of the following is true?
    Peasants in problem areas, communist and noncommunist alike, were placed in concentration camps.
  141. In the spring of 1963, a Buddhist monk burned himself to death in Saigon because_________.
    • Diem’s troops killed 9 protesters after Diem prevented Buddhists from
    • flying their religious flags to commemorate Buddha’s birth.
  142. Regime change came to South Vietnam on November 1, 1963 when_________
    General Duong Van Minh ousted Ngo Dinh Diem in a coup encouraged by the CIA
  143. Why did the U.S. reject the North Vietnamese proposal for an election to unify the country in 1963?
    U.S. leaders were afraid the communists would win.
  144. In the Gulf of Tonkin incident which of the following occurred?
    d) Both b and c

    • b) The U.S. alleged that North Korean boats fired torpedoes at U.S. ships.
    • c) Whether or not torpedoes were actually fired has never been confirmed.
    • d) Both b and c
  145. Lyndon Johnson used the Gulf of Tonkin incident to_________.
    justify escalation of American involvement in Vietnam
  146. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is known as_________.
    Johnson’s “Blank Check” in Vietnam
  147. The attack at Pleiku was_________.
    the event that induced Lyndon Johnson to initiate “Rolling Thunder”
  148. Operation Rolling Thunder was_________.
    the U.S. bombing campaign that was directed at communist supply lines
  149. Undersecretary of State George Ball warned that Rolling Thunder would_________.
    unite all of Vietnam against the “fire from the sky”
  150. Six months after Rolling Thunder was initiated, what did the military conclude?
    The bombing was ineffective because the communists had moved their supply lines outside the country.
  151. After receiving military reports that the Rolling Thunder Campaign was ineffective, President Johnson_________.
    continued the bombing anyway
  152. American serviceman Thomas Slate explained the American objectives in Vietnam as_________.
    to kill “gooks”
  153. The “Phoenix Program” was a CIA program designed to pacify the communists through_________.
    mass arrests and trials of civilians accused of aiding the enemy
  154. By 1968, the number of refugees in South Vietnam was_________.
    4 million people or 25% of the population
  155. What was the implication of CIA agent Sam Adams’ findings?
    d) Both b and c

    • b) The U.S. had seriously underestimated the strength of the enemy in Vietnam.
    • c) The U.S. did not have enough troops in Vietnam to win a guerrilla war.
    • d) Both b and c
  156. What was the importance of the Tet Offensive?
    It proved that the war was not near over and the Viet Cong were not near wiped out as Johnson had suggested 2 weeks earlier.
  157. When at Ben Tre?
    South Vietnamese troops killed 1,000 civilians, shocking the American conscience.
  158. Robert F. Kennedy was assassinated in 1968 by fanatical anti-zionist_________.
    Sirhan Sirhan
  159. In the My Lai incident, _________.
    the U.S. army under Lt. William Calley killed 200 Vietnamese civilians in cold blood
  160. Third Party candidate George Wallace siphoned votes from the Republicans in 1968 on a platform of_________.
    a) segregation
  161. In the 1968 election, Richard Nixon defeated
    Hubert Humphrey
  162. 9. The primary goal of Nixon’s visits to China and the USSR was_________.
    c) to get the Chinese and the Soviets to agree to stop spreading communism so the U.S. would no longer have to contain it
  163. 10. Under the Paris Agreement_________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) North Vietnam could leave its troops in South Vietnam
    • b) the U.S. would withdraw from South Vietnam
    • c) both sides agreed to release POWs
    • d) All of the above
  164. Why did Le Duc Tho of North Vietnam rejected his Nobel Prize in 1973?
    c) 500,000
  165. In the spring of 1969, the New York Times revealed that the Nixon administration had secretly_________.
    bombed communist sanctuaries in Cambodia
  166. In order to gain intelligence on his political opponents, President Nixon authorized_________.
    a burglary and wiretap of the offices of the Democratic National Committee
  167. The Pentagon Papers revealed to the American public_________.
    details of American involvement in Vietnam that were outside of that which Congress had been fully and faithfully informed
  168. In an effort to discredit Daniel Ellsberg and the Pentagon Papers, the “plumbers” under G. Gordon Liddy_________.
    burglarized the office of Ellsberg’s psychiatrist
  169. G. Gordon Liddy’s plans to discredit the opposition included_________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) a planned burglary of the Brookings Institution
    • b) “hush money” to prevent Nixon aides from providing information to federal investigators
    • c) prostitutes trained to extract information from the Democratic Party leadership
    • d) All of the above
  170. In what is known as the “Saturday Night Massacre" which of the following occurred?
    • Solicitor General Robert Bork fired Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox
    • after the Attorney General and Assistant Attorney General refused to do
    • so.
  171. President Nixon did which of the following?
    had the CIA intervene in an FBI investigation into the source of funding for the Watergate burglary
  172. Richard Nixon was indicted by the House of Representatives for all of the following reasons EXCEPT_________.
    ordering the secret bombing of Cambodia
  173. Nixon chose Ford as his Vice President at least partially because_________.
    he thought that Congress surely would not want to replace him with a commodity as unproven as Ford
  174. Gerald Ford did all of the following EXCEPT_________.
    sign a $5.3 billion bill to create jobs and reduce unemployment
  175. Gerald Ford did his Democratic opposition a favor one month into his Presidency by_________.
    granting a pardon to Richard Nixon
  176. Which of the following is true of Ronald Reagan?
    previously a Democrat who supported both Franklin Roosevelt and Hubert Humphrey
  177. Jimmy Carter did all of the following EXCEPT ______.
    successfully fight against rising inflation
  178. The Eagle Forum, headed by Phyllis Schlafly_________.
    opposed the Equal Rights Amendment for women
  179. Jerry Falwell gave his first sermon against abortion_________.
    in 1978, five years after Roe v. Wade
  180. Why did Jimmy Carter sign the Panama Canal Treaty?
    d) All of the above

    • a) The Canal had diminished in strategic importance since the nuclear submarines and largest aircraft carriers did not use it.
    • b) The Canal had diminished in commercial importance since the largest cargo ships did not use it.
    • c) He believed the goodwill in Latin America from the treaty was
    • more important than the Canal’s strategic and commercial value.
    • d) All of the above
  181. One factor that harmed Jimmy Carter’s Presidency was_________.
    his inability to release 52 hostages held by Iran for 444 days
  182. George Bush’s nickname in Congress had been ______.
    “rubbers” due to his advocacy of birth control
  183. Democrats controlled Congress when Richard Nixon was president.
    true
  184. Democrats controlled Congress when Gerald Ford was president
    True
  185. Republicans controlled Congress when Jimmy Carter was president.
    False
  186. Most Americans did not vote in elections in the 1970s.
    True
  187. The number of independent voters in American elections declined in the 1970s.
    False
  188. A majority of Americans expressed great confidence in their leaders in a 1977 poll.
    False
  189. Which of the following is true of Ronald Reagan?
    d) All of the above

    • a) Hollywood actor
    • b) First “divorced” President
    • c) Oldest President by the end of his second term
    • d) All of the above
  190. Which of the following is true of Ronald Reagan?
    Supported both Franklin Roosevelt and Hubert Humphrey
  191. Which of the following is true of Nancy Reagan?
    d) All of the above

    • a) Hollywood actor
    • b) Consulted astrologers
    • c) Known as a political wife of exemplary devotion
    • d) All of the above
  192. Supply-Side economics was predicated on which belief that?
    Tax cuts would stimulate the economy sufficiently that the government would not run deficits.
  193. George W. Bush denounced supply-side economics as________.
    Voo doo economics
  194. Ronald Reagan’s solution to the PATCO strike was to________.
    fire the striking air traffic controllers
  195. The first woman appointed to the Supreme Court was________.
    Sandra Day O’Connor
  196. What factors contributed to the Senate rejection of Robert Bork’s Supreme Court nomination?
    Bork was involved in the “Saturday Night Massacre” during the Watergate scandal.
  197. When did Douglas Ginsberg’s Supreme Court nomination unraveled?
    It was revealed that Ginsberg had used marijuana while teaching at Harvard.
  198. On October 19, 1987, known as “Black Monday________.”
    The stock market fell 22.6%
  199. Which of the following was one economic problem during the Reagan years?
    a rise in income inequality
  200. One of the results of Reagan’s deregulation of the financial sector appears to be________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) bank failures
    • b) savings and loan failures
    • c) a $160 billion taxpayer bailout of the Savings and Loan industry
    • d) All of the above
  201. The largest and most costly riot in American history was the________.
    Rodney King Riot
  202. One of the U.S. Senators that received campaign money from Charles
    Keating, who was involved in a junk bond scandal was________.
    John McCain
  203. According to Haynes Johnson, the number officials in the Reagan Administration that were officially investigated, convicted, or indicted
    was________.
    138
  204. Ronald Reagan’s views on foreign policy included which of the following?
    d) All of the above

    • a) Peace through strength
    • b) A view of the Vietnam War as a “noble cause”
    • c) A view of the Soviet Union as the “Evil Empire”
    • d) All of the above
  205. George Kennan described Reagan’s foreign policy views as________.
    intellectual primitivism
  206. SDI or the “Strategic Defense Initiative” was a proposed________.
    space-based missile defense system
  207. 269 people died on Korean Airlines Flight 007 in 1983 when________.
    the plane was shot down by Soviet fighter planes when it strayed over Soviet air space
  208. What was one of the reasons that Saddam Hussein apparently believed that he could invade Kuwait?
    He understood U.S. Ambassador April Glaspie to say that the U.S. would not get involved.
  209. Which of the following is true under the Reagan Doctrine?
    Countries would be responsible for their own defense.
  210. Which of the following is true of the U.S. involvement in Lebanon in 1983?
    d) All of the above

    • a) 63 Americans died in a suicide attack on the U.S. embassy.
    • b) 241 Americans died in a suicide attack on an American marine compound.
    • c) Congress failed to authorize Reagan’s deployment of troops in a
    • combat zone, forcing the President to redeploy the troops off shore.
    • d) All of the above
  211. Two days after the bombing of the marine compound in Lebanon, Reagan diverted attention from the Lebanon tragedy by________.
    invading Grenada
  212. In conjunction with the Reagan Doctrine, Reagan aided________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) the right-wing dictatorship of Jose Napoleon Duarte in El Salvador
    • b) the Contra rebels in Nicaragua against the Sandinista government
    • c) the Mujanadeen in Afghanistan against the Soviet Union
    • d) All of the above
  213. One driving force of the American economy in the 1980s was________.
    a high tech boom
  214. Reverend Jerry Falwell viewed homosexuality as________.
    an evil sin in the same category as rape, murder, and incest
  215. The first openly gay elected official in the United States, who was assassinated by a Protestant fundamentalist was________.
    Harvey Milk
  216. Why did the Reagan Administration prevented Surgeon General C. Everett Koop from making any statement about AIDS?
    Reagan’s officials believed any such statement was likely to alienate the religious right.
  217. Proposed solutions to the problems of AIDS included________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) Reverend Donald Wildmon’s proposal of a quarrantine
    • b) William F. Buckley’s proposal of a tattoo on all AIDS patients
    • c) “wiping the AIDS patients off the earth” and “cutting their throats”
    • d) All of the above
  218. The first woman to win the Vice Presidential nomination from a major Party was________.
    Geraldine Ferraro
  219. In the Iran-Contra scandal, President Reagan________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) ordered that arms be given to the Contras in defiance of a Congressional ban
    • b) sold arms to Iran in defiance of a Congressional ban
    • c) sold arms to Iran in exchange for the release of American hostages held by Iran
    • d) All of the above
  220. Contributors to the effort to aid the Contra rebels included________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) South American cocaine trafficker George Morales
    • b) Panamanian President Manuel Noriega
    • c) Evangelist Pat Robertson
    • d) All of the above
  221. What hindered the investigation into the Iran-Contra Scandal?
    d) All of the above

    • a) Attorney General Ed Meese warned senior White House officials in advance of an impending document review.
    • b) Lt. Colonel Oliver North shredded documents before they could be reviewed.
    • c) The Congressional Committee in charge of the invesigation was
    • dominated by individuals that supported the arms to the Contras.
    • d) All of the above
  222. Although President Reagan famously implored Mikhail Gorbachev to “tear
    down this wall,” most historians give most of the credit for relaxing
    Cold War tensions to________.
    Mikhail Gorbachev
  223. Under the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986________.
    Sanctions were imposed on employers who knowingly hired illegal aliens
  224. Ronald Reagan was known as the “Teflon President” because________.
    nothing politically negative seemed to stick to him
  225. Vice Presidential candidate Dan Quayle was most famous for________.
    verbal gaffes
  226. The negative campaign ad that many historians believe seriously damaged the candidacy of Michael Dukakis was the________.
    Armageddon ad
  227. After the incident in Tiananmen Square, President Bush________.
    restored relations with China one month later
  228. The communist governments of Eastern Europe all fell in 1989 after________.
    Gorbachev renounced the right of any nation to interfere in the sovereignty of another
  229. The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 after________.
    Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania declared their independence and Gorbachev did not put down the revolts militarily
  230. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Dick Cheney’s “Forward Defense Policy” viewed that Soviet Union as________.
    still a threat that should be contained
  231. President George H.W. Bush commenced Operation Just Cause after Manuel Noriega________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) was indicted for drug trafficking in Florida
    • b) lost an election and refused to vacate power
    • c) had his electoral opponents beaten
    • d) All of the above
  232. Which of the following were included as Saddam Hussein’s reasons for invading Kuwait?
    d) All of the above

    • a) Kuwait was cheating on OPEC quotas.
    • b) the Shatt al Arab waterway was closed and Saddam needed a port on the Persian Gulf .
    • c) Saddam accused Kuwait of horizontal drilling under Iraqi soil.
    • d) All of the above
  233. Between Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait and his expulsion by the
    U.S. military, Saddam attempted to link his removal from Kuwait
    to________.
    the withdrawal of Israel from the occupied territories
  234. Six hours before President Bush ordered General Norman Schwartzkopf to
    deploy ground troops to expel the Iraqis from Kuwait________.
    Saddam Hussein accepted a Soviet Peace proposal that called for his immediate and unconditional withdrawal from Kuwait
  235. The American attack on the Iraqi Convoy near Mitla Ridge________.
    was generally condemned in the Arab media
  236. Why did President Bush not opt to oust Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq?
    d) All of the above

    • a) The UN Resolution did not call for an invasion of Iraq.
    • b) Bush realized that an impotent Iraq would make Iran the dominant power in the region.
    • c) Ousting Saddam would lead to a costly occupation and another Vietnam-style war with no exit strategy.
    • d) All of the above
  237. The U.S. did not intervene in Saddam Hussein’s brutal campaigns against
    Shiite and Kurdish rebellions after the Persian Gulf War
    because________.
    the Bush administration actually preferred rule by Saddam to the revolutionaries.
  238. The American President that billed himself as the “Environmental President” was________.
    George H. W. Bush
  239. When did Clarence Thomas’ nomination to the Supreme Court become controversial?
    Oklahoma University law professor Anita Hill accused him of sexual harassment and a penchant for pornography.
  240. Which of the following did Bill Clinton and George W. Bush have in common?
    d) All of the above

    • a) Both were of the “Baby boom” generation.
    • b) Rumors persisted of drug use in their youth.
    • c) Neither served in Vietnam.
    • d) All of the above
  241. A significant difference between George W. Bush and Bill Clinton was________.
    Bush’s wealthy family background
  242. A major factor that hindered the reelection chances of George H.W. Bush in 1992 was________.
    economic recession
  243. Clinton’s platform as a New Democrat called for________.
    a pro-business stance
  244. Some historians believe that Bush’s reelection efforts were harmed by________.
    The attacks and convention speech of Republican Pat Buchanan
  245. The Third Party Candidate that won 18.9% of the vote in 1992 was________.
    Ross Perot
  246. What was revealed by the polling of Perot’s supporters?
    They were divided evenly at one third apiece for Clinton, Bush, and not voting at all, if Perot had not run.
  247. What did Lawrence Walsh reveal five days before the 1992 Presidential election?
    President Bush had known about the Iran-Contra Affair, a fact that he had denied.
  248. The first female Attorney General was________.
    Janet Reno
  249. Which of the following is true of Clinton’s fiscal policy in his first two years?
    d) All of the above

    • a) Clinton’s tax increases only affected the wealthiest 1.2% of Americans.
    • b) Clinton’s tax plan reduced taxes for the working poor and small businesses.
    • c) Clinton’s tax plan helped cut the federal deficit by $50 billion the first year and $40 billion the second year.
    • d) All of the above
  250. Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell, was Clinton’s policy concerning________.
    gays in the military
  251. The person that President Clinton appointed to head up a task force for the reform of the health care system was________.
    Hillary Clinton
  252. Clinton’s political opponents were able to prevent his health care reforms by incorrectly labeling it as________.
    socialized medicine
  253. The radio talk show host that was recognized by the 104th Congress as an honorary member was________.
    Rush Limbaugh
  254. Which of the following is true of the “Contract with America?”
    The majority of Americans opposed the majority of the contract.
  255. The Defense of Marriage Act________.
    permitted states to refuse to recognize same-sex marriages contracted in other states
  256. When the federal government was forced to shut down due to a budget impasse, the majority of the public blamed________.
    Republicans in Congress
  257. The central focus of Bob Dole’s campaign for the Presidency in 1996 was________.
    tax cuts
  258. Factors that harmed Bob Dole’s campaign in 1996 included which of the following?
    His age (72) was viewed by many to be a negative.
  259. The North American Free Trade Agreement was designed to________.
    create free trade between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico
  260. The Dayton Accords of 1995 negotiated a truce in________.
    Bosnia
  261. President Clinton played a role in the Oslo Peace Process between________.
    Israel and the Palestinians
  262. Clinton’s policy in Iraq included________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) a call for “Regime Change” in Iraq
    • b) numerous cruise missile and bombing attacks
    • c) support for Iraqi rebel groups aimed at deposing Saddam
    • d) All of the above
  263. In September 1997, the World Health Organization published a report
    claiming that over 500,000 Iraqi children had died as the result
    of________.
    the UN Embargo
  264. After Clinton’s Town Hall Meeting on the threat of Iraq’s Weapons of
    Mass Destruction in 1998, public support for an invasion of Iraq was
    at________.
    18%
  265. On a tour of the Gulf States in 1998, what was Madeline Albright was told by Middle Eastern leaders?
    Change imposed on Iraq from the outside would lead to rifts and civil war.
  266. The person who ordered the evacuation of UN inspectors from Iraq in 1998 was________.
    Bill Clinton
  267. Which of the following is true?
    d) Both b and c
  268. b) President Clinton fired 415 cruise missiles and 600 laser guided bombs at Iraq two days before his impeachment hearings
    • c) President Clinton fired 1100 missiles at Iraq January-August 1999
    • d) Both b and c
  269. Which of the following is true?
    President Clinton withdrew American troops from Somalia.
  270. In March, 1999, President Clinton launched a bombing campaign against Serbia to halt the ethnic cleansing in________.
    Kosovo
  271. Timothy McVeigh shared the ideology of________.
    right-wing “patriot” groups that opposed gun control
  272. Timothy McVeigh’s bombing in Oklahoma City appears to have been at least
    partly in reaction to the death of 80 Branch Davidians in a Federal
    siege of the Branch Davidian compound at________.
    Waco, TX
  273. Why did the federal authorities lay siege to the Branch Davidian compound in 1993?
    Branch Davidians shot federal agents that attempted to serve them with a warrant.
  274. Among the Mujahadeen that received American aid through Pakistan in the
    1980s war against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan was________.
    Osama bin Laden
  275. President Clinton responded to the Al Qaeda bombings in Kenya and Tanzania with________.
    cruise missile attacks at Al Qaeda installations in the Sudan and Afghanistan
  276. The “trial of the century” from June 1994 to October 1995 was the murder trial of________.
    former football star O.J. Simpson
  277. What did the Wall Street Journal report on Whitewater on June 26, 1995?
    d) All of the above

    • a) The Clintons were passive investors in Whitewater.
    • b) The Clintons were not involved in Whitewater’s affairs.
    • c) The Clintons could not have played a role in the collpse of the Madison Guarantee Savings and Loan.
    • d) All of the above
  278. What did Special Prosecutor Robert Fiske and Independent Counsel Ken
    Starr conclude when both investigated the death of Vince Foster?
    Foster’s death was a suicide
  279. Why did Paula Jones’ sexual harassment accusation against President Clinton appear dubious?
    d) Both a and b

    • b) Jones’ claim that Clinton walked from the Governor’s mansion to the Excelsior to meet her, a sizeable distance, lacks credibility .
    • c) Clinton had never been at the Excelsior Hotel in Little Rock.
    • d) Both a and b
  280. Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr investigated the Monica Lewinsky counsel as a component of________.
    the Paula Jones case, which he was investigating as a component of the Whitewater case
  281. Bill Clinton was eventually impeached in the Monica Lewinsky affair for________.
    perjury and obstruction of justice
  282. Irregularities in the 2000 Florida election included which of the following?
    d) All of the above

    • a) 46,000 over-votes with Al Gore’s name included and 17,000 over-votes with George W. Bush’s name included.
    • b) Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris ordered a
    • technology company to purge Florida voter roles of suspected felons
    • after being warned that some eligible voters would likely be purged.
    • c) Texas supplied a list of 8,000 suspected felons to Florida that were purged from the Florida voter lists.
    • d) All of the above
  283. In Bush v. Gore, the Supreme Court essentially chose the election winner when they ruled that________.
    Florida must stop its electoral recount
  284. The candidate that won the popular vote by 540,000 votes in 2000 was________.
    Al Gore
  285. George W. Bush’s domestic policies included________.
    tax cuts
  286. Controversial portions of Bush’s response to 9/11 included________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) the indefinite detention of terror suspects at Guantanamo Bay
    • b) the erosion of civil liberties under the USA PATRIOT Act
    • c) the detention within the United States of some 1100 persons of Middle Eastern or Islamic background
    • d) All of the above
  287. Although the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan was successful in ousting the Taliban, the victory was incomplete because________.
    Osama bin Laden escaped
  288. Problems with the Iraq invasion included________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) the Bush administration did not prepare for an insurgency
    • b) no weapons of mass destruction were found
    • c) though Bush declared the war over in May 2003, over 100,000
    • American troops remained in Iraq at the end of his Presidency
    • d) All of the above
  289. Unfortunate byproducts of the Iraq war have included________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) a decline in American prestige worldwide
    • b) the embarrassment of prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib
    • c) the diversion of resources from the hunt for Bin Laden and Al Qaeda
    • d) All of the above
  290. In the election of 2004, the Bush campaign________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) adopted the polarizing strategy of Matthew Dowd
    • b) used “push-polling” tactics of questionable ethics against John McCain
    • c) Slandered John Kerry’s honorable military record with the Swift Boat Veteran’s for Truth ad
    • d) All of the above
  291. Problems in Bush’s second term included________.
    d) All of the above

    • a) the fall of House Speaker Tom DeLay to ethics charges
    • b) connections to discredited lobbyist Jack Abramoff
    • c) an inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina
    • d) All of the above

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