Psych 100: Chtp 6

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Psych 100: Chtp 6
2010-12-06 18:47:41

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  1. Learning
    • change in an organism’s behaviour or thought as a result of experience
    • relatively permanent change in organism's behaviour/ nerual func.
  2. Types of Learning
    • 1) Cognitive: mental skills (knowledge)
    • 2) Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude)
    • 3) Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (skills)
  3. Habituation
    • process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli
    • simplest form of learning
    • makes good adaptive sense
  4. Sensitization
    • opposite of habituation
    • responding more strongly to stimuli over time
    • occures when stimulus is dangerous, irrating or both
    • e.g. studying while the person enxt to you is whispering, which becomes very annoying to the point where you can't focus anymore
  5. Associationism
    is the theory that elemental ideas, sensations and perceptions are organized by means of various associations
  6. Primary Laws of Association - factors that impact classical conditioning
    • 1) Contiguity: things or events that occur close to each other in space or time tend to get linked together in the mind
    • 2) Frequency: the more often 2 things or event are linked, the more powerful will be the association
    • 3) similarity: if 2 things are similar, the thought of one will tend to trigger the thought of the other
    • 4) Contrast: seeing or recalling something may also trigger the recollection of something completely opposite
  7. Clasical conditioning (Pavlovian or respondent cond.)
    form of learning in which animals come to respond to a previously netural stimulu that had been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response
  8. Conditioned stimulus (CS)
    initially neutral stimulus which, after conditioning, elicits a condition response (CR)
  9. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
    stimulus that elicits an automatic response without prior conditioning
  10. Unconditioned response (UCR)
    automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus
  11. Condietioned response (CR)
    response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus as a result of conditioning
  12. Exogenous factors that impact classical conditioning
    • frequency of the CS-UCS pairing
    • consistency
    • timing
    • belongingness (e.g. taste belongs w/ food)
    • strength of the US
    • autonomic arousability
    • classical conditionability
  13. Aversive conditioning
    classical conditioning to an unpleasant UCS
  14. Acquistion
    learning phase during which a conditioned reponse is establised
  15. Extinction
    gradual reduction and eventual elimination of the conditioned response after the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus
  16. Spontaneous recovery
    sudden re-emergence of an extinct conditioned response after a delay following an extinction procedure
  17. Stimulus generaliztiong
    • - process by which conditioned stimuli that are similar but not identical to the original conditioned stimulus elicit a conditioned response
    • - e.g. dog reacting to a similar sound, but with a weaker response
    • - bad for phobias, e.g. not afraid of just of spider, but also pictures, toys, etc.
  18. Stimulus discrimination
    displaying a less pronounced conditioned response to conditioned stimuli that differ from the original conditioned stimulus
  19. Higher-order conditioning
    • developing a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus by virtue of its association with another conditioned stimulus
    • e.g. lemonade, Vietnam veterans
  20. Latent inhibition
    difficulty in establishing conditioning to an already familiar stimulus
  21. Roles of classical conditioning
    • can contribute to acquiring phobias
    • can contribute to conquering phobias
    • plays a role in drug tolerance, if cue(-dependent tolerance) are present, less of a CR
    • conditioned compensatory: response: a CR that is the opposite of the UCR and serves to compensate for the UCR
  22. Fetishism
    sexual attraction to nonliving things
  23. Operant conditioning
    learning controlled by the consequences of the organism's behaviour (punishment or reward)
  24. Positive reinforcement
    • the presentation of a stimulus (what we would usually think of a pleasant stimulus following a behaviour that strengthens the probability of the behaviour
    • e.g. giving candy to a child for being well-behaved
  25. Negative reinforcement
    • the removal of a stimulus (what we would usually think of as a unpleasant stimulus) following a behaviour that strengthens the probability of the behaviour
    • e.g. excusing child from chorse for being well-behaved
  26. reinforcement
    outcome or consequence of a behaviour that strengthens the probability of the behaviour
  27. Punishment
    outcome or consequence of a behaviour that weakens the probability of the behaviour
  28. Disadvantages of punishment
    • tell one what not to do, not what to do
    • creates anxiety which in turn interferes with future learning
    • may encourage subversive behaviour prompting people to become sneakier about what they can and can't display forbidden behaviour
    • punishment from parents may provide a model for children's aggressive behaviour e.g.- thinking slapping is acceptable
  29. Discriminative stimulus (S­d)
    stimulus associated with the availability of reinforcement
  30. Partial reinforcement
    only occasional reinforcement of a behaviour, resulting in slower extinction than if the behaviour had been reinforced continually
  31. Schedule of reinforcement
    pattern by which a behaviour is reinforced
  32. Fixed ratio (FR) schedule
    pattern in which we provide reinforcement following a regular number of responses
  33. Fixed interval (FI) schedule
    pattern in which we provide reinforcement for the first response following a specified time interval
  34. Variable ratio (VR) schedule
    pattern in which we provide reinforcement after a variable number of responses, with the number varying randomly aroundsome average
  35. Variable interval (VI) schedule
    pattern in which we provide reinforcement for the first response following a variable time interval, with the actually intervals varying randomly around some average
  36. Premack principle
    principle that a less frequently performed behaviour can be strengthened by reinforcing it with a more frequent behaviour
  37. 1) Ivan Pavlov
    2) John B Watson
    3) B. F. Skinner
    4) Thorndike
    • 1) discoverer of classical conditioning
    • 2) founder of behaviourism & Little Albert
    • 3) founder of radical behaviourism & Skinner Box
    • 4) founder of operant conditioning