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What does it mean if a hormone is "bound" when it is released in the body?
The hormone is bound to a transporter that delivers it to its target organ.
What is the advantage to bound hormones?
A bound hormone has long-term effects in the body. It stays active in the body for several weeks instead of several hours.
Name 3 bound hormones?
- 1.) Thyroid hormones
- 2.) Adrenal hormones
- 3.) Sex hormones
a.) Tropic hormones are produced in what gland in the body?
b.) What is it that they do?
- a.) Anterior pituitary gland.
- b.) They trigger the release of other hormones.
Name 7 organs/tissues that tropic hormones effect.
- 1.) Adrenal gland
- 2.) Thyroid gland
- 3.) Liver
- 4.) Mammary glands
- 6 & 7.) Gonads (the testes and ovaries)
Name the 2 hormones that are found in the posterier pituitary, and why are they considered unique?
- 1.) ADH & oxytocin
- 2.) They are unique because they are made in the hypothalamus
What is the only Endocrine organ that is NOT directly controlled by the Hypothalamus, but IS controlled by the nervous system?
- The Adrenal gland
- More specifically the medulla of the adrenal gland that produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Name the 2 hormones that have significant effects on fetus' and growing children, but NOT on adults?
Calcitonin & MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone)
What hormone is release by the anterior pituitary at "1"?
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
The Anterior pituitary has 2 part, i &ii. What are these 2 parts?
- "i" is the adrenal medulla
- "ii" is the adrenal cortex
Name the 2 hormones that are made by part i (the adrenal medulla)?
epinephrine & norepinephrine
Part ii of the Adrenal Gland is made up of 3 zones...name all 3 zones, location, and the major hormone it makes.
- Zona Glomerulosa : Outer layer: Aldosterone
- Zona Fasciculata: Middle layer: Glucocorticoids (like Cortisol)
- Zona Reticularis: Inner layer: Androgens
What 4 hormones stimulate growth?
- 1.) GH (Growth Hormone)
- 2.) T3
- 3.) T4
- 4.) Calcitonin
Of the 4 hormones that effect growth, which of them is the ONLY one that is important for proper growth if the skeleton, but NOT other tissues types.
A.) What is the calorigenic effect caused by Thyroid hormones?
B.) What is the side-effect of the calorigenic effect?
A.) Increased glucose metabolism... Meaning increased use of glucose to make energy(ATP).
B.) Increased metabolism raises body temperature slightly.
A.) What is the "glucose-sparing effect" caused by cortisone?
B.) What hormones cause the glucose-sparing effect?
A.) Means glucose is saved and fat is used to make ATP.
B.) GH and Insulin-like Growth Factors
What are the 4 parts to glucose-sparing effect?
- 1.) Decrease in glucose metabolism
- 2.) Increase in lipid metabolism
- 3.) Increase in glycogen formation(storage of glucose)
- 4.) Gluconeogenesis: Conversionof fats and amino acids into glucose
What is the difference between glucose-sparing effect and the actions of Norepinephrine & Epinephrine?
Epi and NE increase glucose metabolism, while Glucose-sparing only increases lipid metabolism
What hormone has iodine in them?
T3 & T4
What hormone causes the release of insulin-like growth factors by the liver?
What hormone suppresses inflammation and other immune responses?
What hormone is involved in the sleep-wake cycle?
What hormone raises blood calcium levels?
Parathroid Hormone (PTH)
What hormone can cause Addison's & Cushing's diseases?
What hormone can cause cretinism?
T3 & T4
What hormone cancause acromegaly?
What hormone can cause diabetes insipidus?
What hormone accelerates energy production?
- T3& T4
- Epinephrine & NE
What hormone lowers blood calcuim levels
What hormone causes milk release from the mammary glands?
What hormone causes milk prduction in the mammary glands?
What hormone stimulates labor contractions?