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What is the purpose of ethics in nursing?
to govern the conduct of nurses
What are 3 ethical principles that nurses are guided by?
What is the code of ethics?
- In summary, a 9 part ethical clause as to how nurses should view themselves, patients, etc
- example: provision one states that the nurse should be compassionate and view the patient as an individual
- Provision 2 states that the nurse's priority is the patient, not the family etc
What are cognative values?
Values that are ascribed for verbally and intellectually
Values that are acted out
What are Kohlberg's stages of moral development?
- age 0-9 is preconventional (avoiding punishment and gaining reward)
- age 9-20 is conventional (avoiding disapproval and gaining rights)
- age 20 + is post conventional (personal moral standards and justice)
What did Carol Gilligan find wrong with Kohlber's theory?
- That he classified women as not moral. She believes women are not inferior, just different.
- She emphasizes her theory on caring and relationships
What are Gilligan's stages of moral development?
- Pre-conventional: what is practical & best for self, realizing connection to others
- Goal is individual survival
- Conventional: sacrifices wants & needs to fulfill others’ wants & needs
- Goal is Self-sacrifice is goodness
- Moral equality: of self and others
- Goal is Principle of nonviolence, do not hurt self or others
What are 4 categories of ethical theories?
- Virtue ethics
What does Deontology consist of?
- "doing one's duty"
- "honoring one's obligation to human beings"
What does Utilitarianism Consist of?
moral rightness of an action is determined solely by its action
Virtue Ethics focus on what?
- the character of the decision maker
- *honesty, truth, respect
What is Principleism?
Use of key ethical principles of beneficence (do good), non-maleficence (do no harm), autonomy (respect for the person’s ability to act in his or her own best interest), justice, fidelity (faithfulness), and veracity (truth telling) in resolution of conflicts or dilemmas
Normative Ethics refers to....?
- questions what ethical principles should be adopted and why some should be chosen over others
- *this is how most nursing ethics have been addressed
What is Autonomy?
Individual can choose actions and goals that fulfill life plans
Beneficence refers to?
A division of Autonomy includes Informed Consent. What is Informed Consent?
- Patients can decide what will and will not happen to them when provided with the right info, comprehension, and voluntariness
- *Decision making
What are some examples of ethical issues presented in clinical setting?
- Patient Care issues-- breaches in confidentiality
- Human rights issues-having to use restraints
- End of treatment issues
What is the individualistic approach to organizational ethics?
Every person is responsible for his/her own decision making and behavior
What is the communal approach to organizational ethics?
- Individuals are viewed as members of a community. Therefore, if an individual changes we would look to see how the community changed to make the individual change.
- (Like for real this is the gayest shit ever. FML i just wanna go to bed)
What are some reporting bodies in nursing practice?
- State boards of Nursing
- American Nurses Association
The State Board of Nursing has 4 main objectives; What are they?
- 1. Defines the practice of nursing
- 2. sets educational requirements
- 3. determines titles and abbreviations that Nurses can use
- 4. defines disciplinary actions
What is one way to avoid malpractice and malpractice suits
having a patient/provider relationship built on a collaborative path towards health
What is an Advance Directive?
- Written instructions recognized by the state law that describe preferences in medical intervention
- ** This is encouraged by the Patient- Self Determination Act (PSDA)
PSDA requires acute and long term care facilites to document whether their patients have completed what?
and advance directive