Chapter 26 Bio Lecture

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kickenbugg
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53919
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Chapter 26 Bio Lecture
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2010-12-06 22:23:36
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Bio lecture
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Ch 26 "Bacteria/Archaea: the Prokaryotic Domains"
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  1. biofilms
    formed by many microbial communities
  2. filaments
    prokaryotes in the form/shape of a chain
  3. peptidoglycan
    • a polymer of amino sugars
    • produces a meshlike structure around the cell
  4. Gram Stain
    a test that separates most types of bacteria into two distinct groups (gram-pos and gram-neg)
  5. gram positive bacteria
    retain violet stain out of gram-negative cells
  6. gram-negative bacteria
    • gram negative cells can pick up the couterstain
    • appears pink/red
  7. flagella
    • slender filaments that extend from a cell
    • made of flagellin
    • helps with movement
  8. quorum sensing
    a density sensing technique
  9. bioluminescence
    a process that allows bacteria to emit light
  10. obligate anaerobes
    oxygen-sensitive organisms
  11. facultative anaerobes
    prokaryotes taht can shift the matabolism between anaerobic and aerobic modes
  12. aerotolerant anaerobes
    • cannnot conduct cellular respiration
    • no damaged by oxygen when it is present
  13. obligate aerobics
    prokaryotes unable to survive without oxygen
  14. photoautotrophs
    perform photosythesis
  15. photoheterotrophs
    use light energy but get carbon atoms from other organisms
  16. chemolithotrophs
    obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substances
  17. chemoheterotrophs
    obtain both enerygy and carbon atoms from organic compound(s)
  18. dinitrifiers
    bacteria that release nitrogen as nitrogen gas
  19. nitrifiers
    oxidize amonia to nitrate
  20. Nitrogen fixers
    convert atmospheric nitrogen gas into ammonia
  21. lateral gene transfers
    transfers that move from one prokaryotic species to another
  22. thermophiles
    "heat-lovers"
  23. spirochetes
    • gram negative bacteria
    • characterized by filaments
  24. Chlamydias
    • smallest bacteria
    • lives in parasites of cells
  25. High-GC Gram-positives
    have relatively high ratio of G-C to A-T base pairs
  26. cyanobacteria
    has blue pigment
  27. vegitative cells
    photosythetic
  28. spores
    resting stages that can survive in harsh environmental conditions
  29. heterocysts
    cells specialized for nitrogen fixation
  30. low-GC Gram-positives
    have a lower ratio of G-C to A-T nucleotide base pairs
  31. endospores
    heat resistant resting structure
  32. staphylococci
    • includes low GC gram positive
    • form boils and sores
  33. mycoplasmas
    lack cell walls
  34. proteobacteria
    largest group of bacteria
  35. extreme halophiles
    live in salty environments
  36. Koch's postulates
    rules talking about different organisms causing specific diseases
  37. invasiveness
    a pathogens ability to multiply in a host's body
  38. toxigenicity
    a pathogenics ability to produce toxins
  39. endotoxins
    released when gram-negative bacteria grow or lyse
  40. exotoxins
    soluble proteins released by living, multiplying bacteria

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