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2010-01-27 18:51:11
science immune system

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  1. What is the first line of defense? (the sword of the armor)
    • Skin: oil and sweat destroy pathogens. Pathogensfall off of the skin with the deadskin when you sweat. takesoff 90% of Pathogens.
    • Nose and Throat: Mucus oilia trap and remove pathogens. (sneezingand coughing).
    • Mouth and Stomach:Saliva an stomach acid destroy the pathogens.
  2. What is the second line of defense? (its the shield from the armor)

    • 1-When fluid and white blood cells leak from blood vessels into nearby tissues and then fight te pathogens.
    • 2-Blood vessels widen and blood flows to the infected area. The area becomes inflamme.
    • 3-PHAGOCYTES ARRIVE- White blood cells that surrounds pathogen and destroys it.
  3. What is the third line of defens? (its the armor the main part)

    • LYMPHOCYTE-White blood cells that tell te difference between different pathogens.
    • T-CELL- identify and tell each pathogens apart.
    • B-CELL- Produce proteins that destroy the pathogens.
    • ANTIBODIES= the protein that help destroy the pathogen.
  4. Pathogens
    • Micro organisms that are SO small you need a microscope to see them.
    • -GERMS
  5. What are the kinds of Pathogens?
    • 1: Bacteria
    • 2: Viruses
    • 3: Fungi
  6. How are Pathogens Spread?
    • -Contact with an infected person, soil, food, water
    • -Infected animal
    • -Contaminated objects
  7. How can you prevent pathogens from spreading?
    • -surfaces of th skin
    • -mouth
    • -breathing passages
    • -stomach functions
  8. What are the types of diseases?
    • -Infectious Disease
    • -Non-infectious Diseases
  9. What is an Infectious Disease?
    -its caused by pesence of allowing thing.

    -Disease you can spend

    • -they are spread by:
    • -Ifected people
    • -Contaminated objects
    • -Food
    • -Water

    Ex: IV (Aids), Polio, Chicken Pox, Colds, Pnemonia
  10. What is Non-infectious Diseases?
    • -No caused by pathogens
    • -You can't "catch" the disease
    • -Include cardiovascular disease that you are born with.

    Ex: Asthma, Diebeates, Cancer, Allergies
  11. How do you prevent infectious diseases?
    by a vaccine so you can become immune to that disease when ever youraround i.
  12. What are the types of immunity?
    • 1-Active Immunity
    • 2-Passive Immunity
  13. What is active immunity?
    when you make your own antibodies to a pathogen.

    Ex: Chicken Pox vaccine for polio, measles.
  14. What is Passive Immunity?
    When a person makes immunity from an outside source.

    Ex: Baby from utero receives antibodies that are passed from mother's blood into baby's blood, good for few months after birh.
  15. What is a vaccine and how does it prevent disease?
    When you get a vaccine you get a weakend sample of the disease so that your pathogens can make an antibodi to fight the disease.
  16. How does the HIV virus affect the immune system?
    becaus it immedeately attacks and destroys the Tcells in the immune system because the immune sytems are no longer functioning properly whenpeople with AIDS become sick with diseases not normally found in people with healthy immune systems.
  17. What is Phagocyte?
    a special type of white blood cell that surrounds pathogens and destroys them by breaking them down.
  18. What is Lymphocytes?
    White blood cells that distinguish between different kinds of pathogens.
  19. What happens when you get sick?
    You take medication/antibiotic.
  20. What is an antibiotic?
    • Chemical that either kills or slow down bacteria.
    • -Does not work on viruses.
  21. What is Medication?
    Taken to treat symtoms or illness
  22. What is bacteria?
    one celled organisms that can either damage cells directly or can produce a toxin (poison) that damages cells.

    Ex:strptococcus bacteria-invades cells in throat
  23. What is a viruses?
    Very tiny particles that invade cells to reproduce, in this process they destroy the cell.

    Ex:cold and flu viruses invade cells of respiratory system.
  24. What is Fungi?
    Not usually microscope and includes organisms such as mold and yeast.

    Ex: athlete's foot and ringworm
  25. What doesn a virus not do?
    • -Grow in size(Viruses do not get bigger)
    • -Respond to stimuli (Viruses will not move if you touc it)
    • -Eat (Viruses don't need food for nutrition)
  26. What is the characteristic that the DNA and RNA viruses share with living organisms?
    they both reproduce
  27. What are the two types of Viruses?
    DNAand RNA
  28. What does the DNA virus do?
    • -copies the same deverytime
    • -never mutates!!
    • -you can be vaccinated
    • -Ex: Chicken pox, small pox, polio, sometimes hepotitise, measles, mumps
  29. What does the RNA virus do?
    • -doesn't copy the same every time
    • -always mutating!!
    • -hard to vaccinate against
    • -Ex: Flu, cold, HIV.
  30. What are the 2 ways viruses reproduce?
    active viruses and latent viruses
  31. What does active virusingdo?
    • -starts reproducing immediately
    • -colds, flu
  32. Wht does latent viruses do?
    • -appears to HIDE for a little while
    • -waits to reproduce
    • -HIV cold sores
  33. What exactly is a vaccine?
    • -made from damaged viru particles that can't cause a disease anymore
    • -you usually receive a vaccine in the form of a shot
    • -vaccines prevent you from getting that virus again