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Systems and human motivation can explain major nursing concepts.
Major nursing concepts include person, environment, and health
Systems theory: Defined as a set of interrelated parts, in which each part is necessary to the whole (von Bertalanffy, 1936)
- Component parts to a system
Nursing views “persons” as unique open systems.
Person is defined as each individual man, woman, or child
Each individual person functions as an open system with numerous subsystems
Promotes exchange of matter, energy, and information with other systems and the environment
Does not interact with other systems or the environment
Dynamic balance within and between systems
Maslow organized human needs
Those needs that ensure physiological survival (Basic Physiological Needs)
Oxygen, rest, activity, shelter, and sexual expression
Safety and security needs
Include physical and psychological needs
Needs for love and belonging
Social and intimate relationships
Need for self-worth, self-respect, and self-reliance
Realization of one’s maximum or optimal potential
- All circumstances, influences, and conditions that surround and affect individuals, families, and
The most direct environmental influence on a person and includes nuclear and extended families
Cultural systems: Consists of attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of social and ethnic groups that are perpetuated through generations
: Groups of families, neighborhoods, schools, churches, professional associations, civic groups, and recreational groups, poverty
Community, national, and world systems
Larger systems in which people live
Health is “the state of optimum capacity of an individual for the effective performance of roles and tasks.
World Health Organization (WHO, 1947):
: Health is “a state of complete physical mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”
Health is a continuum vs. an absolute state.
Health varies from day to day.
Illness is not an absolute state; it also can vary from day to day.
Defined as a focus on the interrelationship of all the parts that make up a whole person.
Health practices include:
*Type and amount of exercise
*Types and amounts of rest
*How persons cope with stress
*Quality of interpersonal relationships
*Expression of spirituality
*Other lifestyle factors
Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1966, 1990) has three components.
- *Evaluation of one’s vulnerability to, and seriousness of,
- a condition
*Individuals/groups perception of how effective the health behavior might be
*The presence of a trigger event that precipitates the health maintenance behavior
Health behaviors include
Those choices and habitual actions that promote or diminish health, such as
*Eating habits, frequency of exercise, use of tobacco products and alcohol, sexual practices, adequacy of rest and sleep
Holistic Nursing Care nourishes the whole person
Nursing care functions as an open system that
ØIs influenced by forces that are internal and external to a patient.
Nursing focuses on optimally assisting people to
ØAvoid or minimize disease and disability
ØRestore wellness or
ØAchieve a peaceful death
The nurse’s ability to facilitate health for the patient involves
ØCollaboration with patients and families
ØProvision of care regardless of individual differences
ØSupport for the value, dignity, and uniqueness of each person
ØConsideration and inclusion of patients’ cultural and belief systems
Represents the intellectual acceptance of something as true or correct. Also can be described as a conviction
Organized beliefs that serve as a guide, or roadmap, for thinking and decision-making
Defined as freely chosen principles, ideals, or standards held by an individual or group that give meaning and direction to life.
A value is an abstract representation of what is right, worthwhile, or desirable.
Most observable human behaviors are manifestations or consequences of human values.
Values influence behavior; people with clear values tend to have, in their daily lives
Value-issues that are challenging for nurses include:
ØRight to Die
ØRight to Refuse Treatment
Study of the theory of knowledge itself .
*“What can be known?”
Study of proper and improper methods of reasoning.
Ø “What should our thinking methods be in order to reach true conclusions?”
Study of beauty and the reasoning behind judgments about beauty.
*“Why do we find things beautiful?”
Study of standards of conduct.
*“What is the nature of good and evil?”
Study of the regulation and control of people as they live in society.
“What makes good governments?”
Study of the ultimate nature of existence, reality, human experience, and the universe.
*“What is the meaning of life?”
Philosophies of nursing shape and guide nursing practice
Philosophies of nursing are statements that are used as bases for thinking and acting. They are based on:
*Beliefs about nursing
*Expressions of values
The nursing profession combines two sources of nursing philosophy:
*Individual philosophies: Developed by each nurse
*Collective philosophies: Developed by schools of nursing, hospitals, medical systems, and nursing organizations
Individual philosophies are formed by each nurse as she/he accumulates practice experience in the profession
- ØThey are principles that underlie your thinking and
- ØThey are the basis of your day-to-day professional
Philosophies of nursing are built on a foundation of understanding and beliefs about:
ØThe Nursing Profession
- As nurses mature
- professionally, their own philosophies change.