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DMAIC
define  measure  analyze  improve  control

acceptance number
the maximum number of defects allowable in a sampling lot for the lot to be acceptable

acceptance quality limit (AQL)
in a continuing series of lots, a quality level that, for the purpose of sampling inspection, is the limit of a satisfactory process level

acceptance sampling plan
a specific plan that indicates the sampling sizes and associated acceptance criteria to be used.

accuracy
the closeness of agreement between a test result and the accepted/true value.

activity based costing
an accoutning system that costs based on the amount of resources used to design, order or make it.

advanced product quality planning (APQP)
HIGHLEVEL AUTOMOTIVE PROCESS FOR PRODUCT REALIZATION FROM DESIGN THROUGH PRODUCTION PARTS APPROVAL

affinity diagram
tool to organizing information. usually used in brainstorming to categorize ideas.

analysis of means (ANOM)
for troubleshooting processes and results of experimental designs with factors at fixed levels. uses graphical display and is an extention of the control chart.

analysis of variance (ANOVA)
 basic stat technique for determining the the proportion of influence of a factor or a set of factors.
 3 models: fixed, random, mixed

analytical (inferential) studies
used to arrive at a conclusion about a population based on the information taken from a sample of that population.

arrow diagram
tool used to diagram a sequence of events or activities (nodes). scheduling and determining the critical path through nodes.

assignable cause
a name for the source of variation in a process that is not due to chance therefore it can be identified and eliminated. also called special cause.

attribute (discrete) data
 go/nogo data.
 control charts: percent chart, number of affected units chart, count chart, count per unit chart, quality score chart, demerit chart.

method of attributes
method of measuring qualityt that consists of noting the presence or absence of a characteristic or attribute and how many units do or do not have it.

average chart
control chart where the sub group average, xbar, is used to evaluate the the stability of the process level

automotive industry action group (AIAG)
global trade association focused on common business process, implementation guidelines, education and training

average outgoing quality (AOQ)
the expected outgoing qulaity level for a given value of incoming product quality

average outgoing quality limit (AOQL)
the maximum average outgoing quality level over all possible levels of incoming quality for a given acceptance sampling plan and disposal specification.

average run legnth (ARL)
on a control chart, the number of subgroups expected to be inspected before a shift of magnitude takes place

average sample number (ASN)
the average number of sample units inspected per lot when reaching decisions to accept or reject

average total inspection (ATI)
the average number of units inspected per lot, including all units in rejected lots. applicable when procedure call for 100% inspection of rejected lots

baseline measurement
starting point based on evaluation of output over time. done before any improvement effort and provides the basis against which the change is measured.

batch and queue
make more than one of something (a batch) and move it to the next operation before it is needed there.

Bayes's theorem
a formula to calculate conditional and marginal probability distributions of random variables

benchmarking
used to measure your performance against best in class. and figure out how to use that information. strategies, operations and processes can be benchmarked

benefitcost analysis
relationship between cost of an improvement and the value of benefits achieved by the improvement, within the same time period

bias
the influence in a sample of a factor that causes the data population or process being sampled to appear different from what it actually is, typically in a specific direction

binomial distribution
a discrete distribution that is applicable whenever an experiment consists of n independant Bernoulli trials and the probability of an outcome, say, success, is constant throughout the experiment

block diagram
diagram showing operation, interrelationships, and interdependancies of compnents in a system. more.

brainstorming
used to generate ideas on a particular subject. different methods used.

breakthrough improvement
a dynamic, decisive movement to a new, higher level of performance

business process reengineering (BPR)
the concentration on improving business processes to deliver outputs that will achieve results meeting the firm's objectives, priorities, and mission


calibration
comparison of a measurement system of unverified accuracy to one of known accuracy to detect any variation from the required performance specification

capability
the total range of inherent variation in a stable process determined by using data from control charts

cause
an identified reason for the presence of a defect, problem, or effect

causation
the relationship between two variables. the changes in a variable x cause changes in y

cause and effect diagram
ishikawa or fishbone diagram used in root cause analysis. illustrates main causes and subcauses leading to an effect (symptom). one of the "seven tools of quality"

centerline
a line on a graph that represents the overall average (mean) operating level of the process

central limit theorem
states that irrespective of shape of the distibution of a population, the distibution of sample means is approsimately normal when the sample size is lage

central tendency
teh tendancy of data from a process to cluster toward a middle value somewhere between the high and low values of measurement

chain reaction
Deming: improve quality, decrease cost, improve productivity, increase market share with better quality and lower price, stay in business, provide jobs, and provide more jobs.

chain sampling plan
in acceptance samplin, a plan where the croteria for acceotence and rejection apply to the cumulative sampling results results for thecurrent lot and one or more immediately preceding lots

change agent
change facilitator

changeover
a production device or machine is assigned a different operation

changeover time
time to tear down and set up for a new operation

characteristic
the factors, elements, or measures that define and differentiate a process, function, product, service, or other entity

chart
a tool for organizing, summarizing and depicting data in graphic form

charter
a written commitment approved by management stating the scope of authority for an improvement project or team

check sheet
a simple data recording device. designed by the user so as to readily interpret data. one of the "seven tools of quality"

Checklist
a tool for ensuring that all important steps or actions in an operation havee been taken. do not confuse with "check sheet"

chi square distribution
probability distribution of sum of squares of n independant normal variables.

classification of defects
the listing of possible defects of a unit, classified according to their seriousness. definitions of classifications require careful preparation and tailoring to the product to ensure proper clasification.

common causes
causes in a process that are inherent in a process over time. they affect every outcome of the process and everyone working in the process. AKA chance causes.

compliance
the state of an organization that meets prescribed specifications, contract terms, regulations, or standards.

conformance
a affirmative indication or judgement that a product or service has met the requirements of a relevant specification, contract, or regulation.

conformity assessment
ALL activities concerned with determining that relevant requirements in standards or regulations are fulfilled, including sampling, testing, inspection, certification, management system assessment & registration,accreditation of the competence of those activities, and regognition of an accreditation program's capability.

constraint
anything that limits a a system froom achieving higher performance or throughput

Consumer
The external customer to whom a product or service is ultimately delivered also called and user.

Continuous (variable) data
Date other very with discontinuity across an interval. The values of continuous data are often represented by floating point numbers. In sampling continuous data are often referred to as variable data.

Continuous flow production
A message in which items are produced and moved from 1 processing stuff to the next 1 piece at a time. Each process makes only the 1 piece that the next process needs and the transfer batch size is 1. Also referred to as 1 piece flow and single piece flow.

Continuous improvement (CI)
Sometimes called continual improvement. The ongoing improvement of products services or processes incremental breakthrough improvements.

Continuous quality improvement (CQI)
If last of the an attitude for analyzing capabilities and processes And improving them repeatedly to achieve customer satisfaction.

Continuous sampling plan
In acceptance sampling a plan intended for application to a continuous flow of individual units of product That involves acceptance and rejection I'm a unit but you know basis and employees alternate periods of 100 percent inspection and sampling. More on this.

Control chart
A chart with upper and lower control limits how much value of some statistical measure for a series of samples or sub groups are plotted. The chart frequently shows a central line to help detect a trend of plotted values toward either control limit.

Control limits
The natural boundaries of a process Within specified confidence levels expressed as the upper Control limit (UCL) and lower control limit (LCL)

Control plan (CP)
Written description of the systems for controlling part and process quality by addressing the key characteristics and engineering requirements

Corrective action recommendation (CAR)
The full cycle corrective action tool that offers ease and simplicity for employee involvement in the corrective action / process improvement cycle.

Correlation (statistical)
A measure of the relationship between 2 data sets of variables.

Cost of poor quality (COPQ)
 The costs associated with providing poor quality products or services. There are 4 categories.
 Internal failure costs
 External failure costs
 Appraisal costs
 Prevention cost

Cost of quality (COQ)
another term for cost of poor quality. however, there's some discussion about whether not They are the same.

Count chart
 A control chart for evaluating The stability of a process in terms of Events of a given classification ocurring in a sample.
 Known as a "c chart"

Count per unit chart
A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process in terms of the average count of the events of a given classification per unit occuring any sample.

C_{p}
the ratio of tolerance to six sigma, or the upper specification limit minus the lower specification limit, divided by six sigma. sometimes referred to the engineering tolerance divided by the natural tolerance and is only a measure of dispersion.

C_{pk} index
equals the lesser of the USL minus the mean divided by three sigma (or the mean) minus the LSL divided by three sigma. the greater the C_{pk} value, the better.

C_{pm}
used when a target value within the pecification linits is more significant than overall centering.^{3}

