Chapter 13 - PSYC 3980 Final

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Chapter 13 - PSYC 3980 Final
2010-12-06 23:40:06
specialized designs

specialized designs
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  1. What are the developmental research designs?
    • cross-sectional design
    • longitudinal design
    • (cohort) sequential design
  2. Cross-Sectional Design
    • children in different age groups measured at same time
    • age = between subjects quasi-experimental IV
    • compare memory of 3 groups: 7, 9, and 11 year olds
    • Pros: relatively fast and inexpensive to conduct
    • Cons: cohort effects: effect of being born in one particular historical context
    • cohort: group of people born at same time, exposed to similar culture, historical contexts while growing up (i.e. Baby Boomers)
    • no info about development of individuals
    • only look at each person one time
  3. Longitudinal Design
    • same group of participants measured at different ages
    • age = within subjects quasi-experimental IV
    • measured at each age
    • compare memory of 1 groups of kids when they are 7, 9, and 11
    • Pros: can study development of individual participants, can examine relationships between early and later behavior, no concern about cohort effects
    • Cons: cross-generational problem: hard to generalize to groups not part of that cohort; expensive, time-consuming; initial questions, measures may become uninteresting/inadequate; attrition/mortality; testing effects
  4. (Cohort) Sequential Design
    • combines cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches: follows 2 or more cohorts for short longitudinal period
    • age = BOTH between AND within subjects IV
    • ex: pick 3 groups of kids at beginning, test same groups 2 years later, test same groups 4 years later
    • can compare to each other and themselves
    • can separate effects due to development, cohort effects, and reduce cross generational problem
  5. Small n Designs
    used to study one or a small sample of participants
  6. Case Studies
    • in depth description, analysis of one person
    • often used in clinical settings
    • Advantages: provide new hypotheses, chance to test out new treatments, chance to study rare phenomena
    • Disadvantages: no causal statements, observer bias may make data less accurate, low external validity
  7. Baseline Designs
    • start by getting a baseline: measuring behavior before treatment to see what typical behavior looks like
    • manipulation then given while behavior continues to be measured to see if there's a change
    • changes in behavior indicate manipulation may have effect
    • problem: can't be sure manipulation causes behavior change
  8. Reversal Designs
    • involve systematically introducing and withdrawing manipulation
    • A = without manipulation - getting your baseline
    • B = with manipulation - introducing treatment or change of some sort
  9. ABA Design
    • behavior measured to get baseline (A)
    • manipulation given while behavior measured again (B)
    • manipulation withdrawn and behavior measured final time (A)
    • if manipulation caused changes in behavior it's expected that taking it away will return behavior to baseline levels
  10. Problems with ABA Designs
    • still not definite proof that treatment worked or did not work
    • not ethical to take away successful treatment
  11. ABAB Design
    • just like ABA, but at the end manipulation is reintroduced
    • adds evidence that manipulation is responsible for change
    • lets patients continue with successful treatments
    • can allow researcher to compare two treatments
  12. Multiple Baseline Designs
    • several different behaviors measured at same time to see if they are affected by manipulation
    • so, multiple DVs
    • if only behavior of interest changes when manipulation is introduced, gives evidence that manipulation is effective for that specific behavior
    • can also measure same behavior in different situations
    • offers the strongest test of hypothesis