Chapter 27 Biology Lecture

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kickenbugg
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53957
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Chapter 27 Biology Lecture
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2010-12-06 23:51:17
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bio Lecture
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ch 27 "the Origin and Diversification of Eukaryotes"
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  1. protists
    eukaryotes that are NOT plants, animals, or fungi
  2. primary endosymbiosis
    • the step that gave rise to the photosynthetic eukaryotes
    • trace ancestry back to engulfment of one cyanobacteria by a larger eukaryotic cell
  3. secondary endosymbiosis
    photosynthetic euglenids derived their chloroplasts from this
  4. tertiary endosymbiosis
    occurred when dinoflagellate lost its chloroplast and took up haptophyte
  5. pseudopods
    • amoeba form these
    • used for movement
  6. cantractile vacuoles
    controls the amount of water in the organism
  7. digestive vacuoles
    these engulf food by endocytosis
  8. phytoplankton
    the photosynthetic membrane of the plankton
  9. conjugation
    • sexual behavior
    • two paramecia line up against eachother and fuse
  10. alternation of generations
    • a life cycle found in many protists
    • diploid organisms give rise to haploid organisms which then forms a diploid...and repeats
  11. heteromorphic
    the two alteration of generations differ morphologically
  12. isomorphic
    alternation of generations do NOT differ morphologically
  13. sporophyte
    multicellular, photosynthetic protists (spore plant)
  14. gametophyte
    multicellular diploid and haploid generations (gemete plant)
  15. sporocyte
    • a specialized cell of a diploid sporophyte
    • divides to produce 4 haploid spores
  16. isogamous
    having gametes of identical appearance
  17. anisogamous
    having female gametes that are larger that the male gametes
  18. haplontic
    a life cycle in which multicellular haploid individuals produce gametes which form a zygote
  19. diplontic
    life cycle in which meiosis produces the sporocytes which produce haploid gametes
  20. chromalveolates
    a group of photosynthetic organisms that in clude haptocytes, alveolates, and straminophiles
  21. haptophytes
    unicellular organisms with flagella
  22. alveolate
    synamorphy that has alveoli
  23. dinoflagellates
    photosynthetic producers of most oragnic matter in the oceans
  24. ampicomplexans
    • parasitic
    • made of a mass of organelles that help invade host tissues
  25. ciliates
    have numerous hairlike cilia
  26. stramenopiles
    possesses rows of tubular hairs on the longer of the 2 flagella
  27. diatoms
    • unicellular
    • make carbohydrates and oils
  28. Brown algae
    • have brown pigments
    • multicellular
    • either filaments or leaf like growths
  29. oomycetes
    • mold
    • filamentatious and stationary
  30. coenocytes
    having many nuclei in a single plasma membrane
  31. saprobic
    feeding on dead organic matter
  32. plantae
    • mostly photosynthetic species
    • consists of many clades
  33. glaucophytes
    unicellular organisms that live in freshwater
  34. red algae
    • have red pigments
    • can change color with light conditions
  35. chlorophytes
    a clade of green algae
  36. charophytes (charales)
    included in green algal clade (with land plants)
  37. diplomonads and parabasalids
    • unicellular
    • no mitochondria
    • parasitic
  38. loboseans and heteroloboseans
    belongs to unikonts and excavates groups
  39. euglenids
    • have flagella
    • protiens control cell shape
  40. kenetoplastids
    • unicellular parasites
    • 2 flagella
    • 1 mitochondrian
  41. rhizaria
    • unicellular
    • auquatic eukaryotes
  42. cercozoans
    a diverse group
  43. foraminiferans
    • secrete shells for protection
    • have long psuedopods
  44. radiolarians
    this stiff psuedopods renforced by microtubules
  45. unikonts
    "single cone"

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