Card Set Information
define acellular agent
agents that can not reproduce independantly of living cells nor carry out cell division
T/F: Viruses contain DNA and RNA
False. Viruses can only contain RNA or DNA not both
a complete virus particle
a protein coat that encloses viral DNA or RNA
Capsids are composed of subunits called ________
nucleic acid and capsid
This acellular agent contains RNA only
3 styles of capsid morphology
helical, icosahedral, and complex
This acellular agents is an infectious protein
viruses that exclusively infect bacterial cells
a bacteriophage will transfer DNA by this mechanism
The method of bacterial HGT when uptake of DNA fragments or a plasmid uptake occurs
This HGT involves F+ using a sex pili to attach to a F- bacterium
T/F: A plasmid replicates along with the chromosome
F: The plasmid replicates independantly
This method of DNA repair uses UVR complexes to scan DNA to identify thymine dimers
Nucleotide excision repair
This kind of test test's for mutagenicity
The Ames test
The genes for a sex pilus and plasmid transfer are found where?
On the plasmid of a F+ bacterium
the worst kind of mutation that codes for non-functional proteins
this mutation substitutes one base into the sequence and doesnt cause a change in amino acid sequence
this kind of mutation codes for an early "STOP" in aminoacid synthesis
A single base substitution that changes one amino acid overal in the chain, changing the protein
a small magnitude of mutations is known as a _______ mutation
T/F: a gene mutation can occur spontaneously without exposure to mutagens
insertion of mobile elements
a mutation when a purine is replaced by a pyrimidine
the source of mutations to form a thymine dimer
this kind of mutation transforms a mutant typre to a wild-type
this type of gene mutation transforms a wild-type to a mutant type
this kind of mutation occurs when a second mutation counteracts the effect of the original mutation
T/F: a gene mutation is never nuetral
F. A gene mutation may be silent, causeing no change
T/F: a frameshift mutation may involve a insertion or deletion
Lactose operon exhibits _______ regulation
This activates proteins; post-translational regulation
these proteins regulate translation
T/F: antisense RNAs may enhance or inhibit translation
T/F: lactose operon is ON when glucose levels are high and lactose is present. This is and example of __________ regulation
F. When glucose levels are high cAMP is low. Yes lactose is present, but glucose digestion is prefered.
What is diauxic growth?
when a preferable carbon (food) source is used over another when
are available. Ex glucose present with lactose--> glucose digested first
Catabolote repression is mediated by?
CAP and cAMP
T/F: attentuation regulates the lactose operon
false. Attenuation regulates the trp operon.
If the energy source is organic molecules for a organism, then is it called?
an organism that uses inorganic molecules as an energysource is called?
an organism that uses light for its energy
An organisms that uses organic molecules as a carbon source
an organism that uses CO
as a carbon source
An organism that uses organic molecules as an electron source
an organism that uses inorganic molecules as an electron source
An aerobic organisim creates ATP through this process _______ ________
T/F: aerobic and anerobic respiration both make ATP via oxidative phosphorylation
T/F: the products of fermentation is pyruvate
False. Pyruvate is the electron acceptor (glucose split into pyruvate). H2 gas, CO2 gas are products of fermentation
Oxidation of organic chemicals is known as?
oxidation of inorganic molecules
energy obtained directly from sunlight
2 types of Eukaryotic microbes
3 classes of protists
slime + water molds
This substance is only found in the cell walls of fungi
a unicellular fungi
a multicellular fungi
this organelle is responsible for cell division, signal transduction, and cell movement
plasma membrane : phospholipid bilayer
makes up microfilament composition
organelle containing dicytochromes
An organelle responsible for energy conservation in anaerobic protists
an organism thats uses dead organic material as a carbon source. Type of organism
saprotroph - fungi
an organism that gets its carboin source from a living organism.
yeasts belong in the _____ class of fungi
an example of a zygomycota
filamentous fungi - multicellular
T/F: a fungi reproduces sexually via mitosis.
F. A fungi reproduces asexually through mitosis because it is hapliod --> dives via binary fission. Meiosis is sexual reproduction
Unicellular fungi (yeats) produce asexually via?
budding - mitosis of haploid cells
In yeasts, this type of reproduction process ________is regulated by phermones
spore forming in ascus
when nutrient poor a yeast will replicate by which method?
Meiosis, produces spores.
4 stages of infectious disease
the ability of a microbe to cause disease
T/F: an infection is a synonym for disease
F. An infection is when microbes penetrate host defenses that may lead to disease.
microbes may display pathogenicity; cummulative infections accumulatye and damage cell tissue
When a microbe is eliminated or becomes apart of an organisms natural flora, it falls under this classification