anatomy muscle test

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hydrogensgirl
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53966
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anatomy muscle test
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2010-12-07 00:20:44
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anatomy muscle test review
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  1. Five Golden Rules
    All muscles cross at least one joint

    Typically, the bulk of the muscle lies proximal to the joint crossed

    All muscles have at least two attachments: the origin and insertion

    Muscles can only pull; they never push

    During contraction, the muscle insertion moves toward the origin
  2. Function of Muscles
    • Produce movement
    • Maintain posture
    • Stabilize joints
    • Generate heat
  3. Movement is attained due to
    a muscle contracting to pull on an attached bone (bones are never pushed)
  4. Origin
    attachment to an immoveable (less movable) bone
  5. Insertion
    attachment to a movable bone
  6. During contraction, muscle insertion moves toward what?
    origin
  7. Prime mover-agonist
    muscle with the major responsibility for a certain movement
  8. Antagonist
    muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover
  9. Synergist
    muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation
  10. Fixator
    stabilizes the origin of a prime mover
  11. Four Basic Components of Lever
    • rigid bar – bones
    • fulcrum – point on which bar moves; joint
    • object - moved against resistance; weight
    • force – supplies energy for movement; muscles
  12. isotonic
    muscle contracts and changes length
  13. concentric
    shortening contraction
  14. eccentric
    lengthening contraction
  15. isometric
    muscle contracts but does not change length
  16. Skeletal Muscle
    • usually attached to bones
    • under conscious control
    • striated
  17. Cardiac Muscle
    • wall of heart
    • not under conscious control
    • striated
  18. Smooth Muscle
    • walls of most viscera, blood vessels, skin
    • not under conscious control
    • not striated
  19. Smooth Muscle Characteristics
    Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs (visceral muscle)
  20. Skeletal Muscle Characteristics-Functions
    • (a) Produce movement
    • (b) Maintain posture
    • (c) Stabilize joints
    • (d) Generate heat
  21. Skeletal Muscle Characteristics-Functionally Related Properties
    • (1) Irritability – ability to receive and respond to a stimulus
    • (2) Contractility – ability to shorten when an adequate stimulus is received
    • (3) Extensibility – abilty to stretch/extend
    • (4) Elasticity – ability to return to original shape
  22. Muscles of Facial Expressions
    • Frontalis
    • Obicularis oculi
    • Obicularis oris
    • Buccinator
    • Zygomaticus
    • Platysma
  23. Frontalis
    raises eyebrows, wrinkles forehead
  24. Obicularis oculi
    closes, blinks eye
  25. Obicularis oris
    closes, protrudes lips
  26. Buccinator
    compresses cheeks
  27. Zygomaticus
    raises corners of mouth
  28. Platysma
    draws down corners of mouth
  29. Muscles of Mastication
    • Masseter
    • Temporalis
    • Platysma
    • Medial pterygoid
    • Lateral pterygoid
  30. Masseter
    elevates mandible
  31. Temporalis
    elevates mandible
  32. Platysma
    lowers mandible (frown)
  33. Medial pterygoid
    elevates mandible
  34. Lateral pterygoid
    depress mandible
  35. Muscles of Neck Movements
    • Sternocleidomastoid
    • Splenius capitis & Semispinalis capitis
    • Erector Spinae
  36. Sternocleidomastoid
    neck flexion, rotation
  37. Splenius capitis & Semispinalis capitis
    neck extension & rotation
  38. Erector Spinae
    neck/vertebral extension
  39. Muscles that Move Pectoral Girdle Posterior
    • Trapezius
    • Rhomboids (major/minor)
    • Levator scapulae
  40. Muscles that Move Pectoral Girdle Anterior
    • Serratus anterior
    • Pectoralis Minor
  41. Trapezius
    scapula adduction, rotation
  42. Rhomboids (major/minor)
    retracts & elevates scapula
  43. Levator scapulae
    Elevates
  44. Serratus anterior
    Pulls scapula anterior and downward
  45. Pectoralis Minor
    Raises ribs & pulls scapula anterior
  46. Muscles of Brachial Arm Movements
    • Pectoralis major
    • Deltoid
    • Latissimus dorsi
    • Coracobrachialis
    • Teres major
    • Teres minor
    • Subscapularis
    • Supraspinatus
    • Infraspinatus
  47. Pectoralis major
    humerus flexion, adduction, medial rotation
  48. Deltoid
    humerus abduction (extension & flexion)
  49. Latissimus dorsi
    humerus extension, adduction
  50. Coracobrachialis
    arm flexion & adduction
  51. Teres major
    extends, adducts & rotates arm
  52. Teres minor
    lateral rotation of arm
  53. Subscapularis
    Medial rotation
  54. Supraspinatus
    Arm Abduction
  55. Infraspinatus
    Lateral rotation
  56. Muscles of Forearm Movements
    • Biceps brachii
    • Brachialis
    • Brachioradialis
    • Triceps brachii
    • Pronator terez & quadratus
    • flexor retinaculum
  57. Biceps brachii
    flexion at elbow, supination
  58. Brachialis
    flexion at elbow
  59. Brachioradialis
    flexion at elbow
  60. Triceps brachii
    extension at elbow
  61. Pronator terez & quadratus
    pronation
  62. Muscles of Hand/Finger Movements
    • Flexor carpi radialis
    • Palmaris longus
    • Flexor digitorum
    • Flexor carpi ulnaris
    • . Extensor carpi ulnaris
    • Extensor digitorium
    • Extensor carpi radialis
  63. Flexor carpi radialis
    wrist flexion, abduction
  64. Palmaris longus
    wrist flexion
  65. Flexor digitorum
    wrist and finger flexion
  66. Flexor carpi ulnaris
    wrist flexion, adduction
  67. Extensor carpi ulnaris
    wrist extension, adduction
  68. Extensor digitorium
    wrist and finger extension
  69. Extensor carpi radialis
    wrist extension, abduction
  70. Muscles of Trunk Movements
    • Rectus abdominus
    • Transverse abdominus
    • External obliques
    • Internal obliques
    • Erector spinae
  71. Rectus abdominus
    vertebral flexion
  72. Transverse abdominus
    vertebral rotation
  73. External obliques
    vertebral rotation
  74. Internal obliques
    vertebral rotation
  75. Erector spinae
    vertebral extension

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