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2010-12-07 00:37:31
Medical terminology terms week

Medical terminology terms week 8
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  1. endocrine
    releases substances (hormones) into bloodstream
  2. exocrine
    releases substances to outside of body or into intestines (digestive enzymes)
  3. hypothalamus
    • "control center" for pituitary gland
    • produces releasing factors which stimulate the pituitary to produce hormones
    • influences endocrine organs
  4. anterior pituitary
    • growth hormone (GH)
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • prolactin
  5. posterior pituitary
    • antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • oxytocin
  6. hypothyroidism (myxedema)
    • decreased production of thyroid hormone
    • swelling of face, weight gain, slow metabolism
  7. hyperthyroidism (Grave's disease)
    • too much thyroid hormone
    • eyes bulge = exophthalmus
    • anxiety, weight loss, arrhythmias, tachycardia, rapid metabolism
  8. growth hormone
    • target organs: bone, cartilage, liver, muscle
    • functions: stimulates growth and increases use of fats for energy
  9. pituitary dwarfism
    • a growth hormone disorder
    • hyposecretion in children
  10. gigantism
    • a growth hormone disorder
    • hypersecretion in children
    • usually caused by pituitary tumor
  11. acromegaly
    • enlargement of extremities
    • a growth hormone disorder
    • hypersecretion in adults
    • usually caused by pituitary tumor
  12. prognathism
    • elongated mandible
    • found in gigantism and acromegaly
  13. adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • target organ: adrenal cortex
    • function: stimulates cortisol (stress hormone) secretion
  14. Cushing disease
    • an adrenocorticotropic hormone disorder
    • hypersecretion of cortisol
    • weight gain, hair loss, slow healing, moon face, buffalo hump
  15. antidiuretic hormone
    • vasopressin
    • target organ: kidneys
    • functions: increases water re-absorption in nephrons
  16. diabetes insipidus
    • an antidiuretic hormone disorder
    • hyposecretion
    • excess urine production, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances
  17. non-pituitary hormones
    • calcitonin
    • thyroxine
    • triiodothryonine
    • parathyroid hormone
    • glucocorticoids
    • mineralcorticoids
    • epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • glucagon
    • insulin
    • estrogen and testosterone
    • melatonin
  18. glucagon
    • a pancreatic hormone
    • increases blood glucose by stimulating breakdown of glycogen
  19. hypoglycemia
    hyposecretion of glucagon yielding low blood sugar
  20. insulin
    • a pancreatic hormone
    • decreases blood glucose by stimulating cells to take up glucose from blood
  21. diabetes mellitus type I
    • caused by hyposecretion of insulin from the pancreas
    • usually autoimmune process where body attacks the insulin-producing cells
    • causes hyperglycemia
  22. hyperglycemia
    • high blood glucose
    • caused by DM type I and II
  23. diabetes mellitus type II
    • caused by cells not responding to insulin
    • caused by poor food choices and genetics
    • plenty of insulin is produced, but cells don't act as they should
    • causes hyperglycemia
  24. symptoms of diabetes mellitus
    polydipsia: excessive thirst (due to water loss in urine)

    polyuria: excessive urination (due to excess water in urine)

    polyphagia: excessive eating (due to inability to utilize glucose)
  25. central nervous system (CNS)
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  26. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    • cranial nerves
    • spinal nerves
  27. cerebr/o
    the largest part of the human brain
  28. cerebrospinal
    pertaining to the brain and spinal cord
  29. mening/o
    the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
  30. memingitis
    inflammation of the meminges
  31. neur/o
    impulse carrying cells that relay information in our bodies
  32. neurologist
    doctor that specializes in diseases of the nervous system
  33. neuropathy
    damage to or disease of a nerve
  34. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    liquid that brain and spinal cord is contained in
  35. sciatica
    pain in posterior thigh due to compression or irritation in the sciatic nerve (runs from low back down the back of the legs)
  36. skeletal system
    • bones (206)
    • joints
    • cartilage (protect bone surface)
    • ligaments (connect bone to bone)
  37. skeletal system functions
    • framework for muscle/organ attachment
    • aid in support of body weight and movement
    • hematopoiesis (formation of blood cells)
    • mineral storage (calcium)
    • protection of vital organs
  38. osteoclasts
    bread down bone (parathyroid hormone)
  39. osteoblasts
    build bone (calcitonin)
  40. bone parts
    • epiphysis (ends)
    • diaphysis (middle)
    • epiphyseal plate (growth plate)
    • red bone marrow (blood forming)
    • yellow bone marrow (fat storage)
  41. tendons
    attach muscles to bone
  42. skeletal muscle
    • striated muscle
    • voluntary
  43. smooth muscle
    • unstriated muscle
    • involuntary
  44. cardiac muscle
    heart muscle
  45. oste/o
  46. osteomalacia
    • softening of the bone
    • rickets
    • caused by not enough vitamin D
  47. my/o
  48. myodynia
    • muscle pain
    • myalgia
    • fibromyalgia
  49. chondr/o
  50. costcochondritis
    inflammation of rib cartilage
  51. arthr/o
  52. arthritis
    inflammation of a joint
  53. spondyl/o
  54. ankylosing spondylitis
    inflammation of vertebra causing fusion
  55. vertebr/o
  56. myel/o
    bone marrow or spinal cord
  57. multiple myeloma
    a cancer of certain white blood cells
  58. osteoarthritis
    • most common
    • older aged individuals
    • previous injury to joint
  59. rheumatoid arthritis
    • autoimmune
    • cartilage is attacked
  60. gout (gouty arthritis)
    uric acid deposition
  61. osteoporosis
    • decrease in density of bones
    • common after menopause in females
  62. arthroscopy
    using and arthroscope to take a look inside and repair a joint
  63. arthroplasty
    surgical repair (usually replacement) of a joint