Biology Final

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53969
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Biology Final
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2010-12-07 00:43:18
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Biology
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CH 1 - ch 24
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  1. Homeostasis
    maintaining a living system w/i an acceptable range.
  2. Cell
    theory
    all cells come from pre-existing cells
  3. Prokaryotic
    cells
    do not have a mitochondria or a nucleus
  4. Order
    of taxonomy
    Kingdom, phylum ,class, order, family, genus, species
  5. First
    step of scientific method
    review accumulated scientific data

    Different between a null and alternative hypothesis

    • Null- no
    • difference



    A hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable
  6. 4 elements that make up 96% of all living matter
    • Hydrogen,
    • Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon
  7. Valence
    how many electrons you need to maintain stability
  8. Valence
    electrons
    how many electrons you have in your outer shell
  9. Octet
    rule
    an atom need 8 electrons in its outer shell to maintain stability
  10. Covalent
    bonds
    electrons are shared
  11. Ionic
    bonds
    electrons are transferred
  12. Hydrogen
    bonds
    bonds between molecules
  13. Isotopes
    differ in the number of neutrons
  14. Cohesion
    two of the same substances stick to themselves
  15. Adhesion
    • two
    • different substances stick to each other
  16. Surface
    tension
    • level of difficulty involved in breaking or stretching the
    • surface of a liquid
  17. Heat
    of vaporization
    • how
    • much energy it takes to change from liquid to gas
  18. Specific
    heat
    amount of heat you need to change the temperature of one gram of something
  19. Buffer
    • substances
    • that minimize changes in hydronium or hydroxide
  20. functional
    groups
    • hydroxyl=OH,
    • Carbonyl=CO, Carboxyl=COOH
  21. Isomer
    same molecular formula but different structure

    Structural

    Geometric

    Enantiomer
  22. Hydrolysis
    • breaking
    • something apart via water
  23. Condensation
    synthesis
    • when
    • you remove water to put something together
  24. Amino
    acids have
    CHONP
  25. Proteins
    have
    CHON
  26. Carbohydrates
    have
    CHO
  27. Lipids
    have
    CH
  28. Building
    blocks for protein
    amino acids
  29. Primary
    structure
  30. the unique sequence of amino acids. Help together by peptide bonds
  31. Secondary
    Structure
    • alpha or beta pleated sheets. Help together by hydrogen
    • bonds
  32. Tertiary
    structure
    actual 3D shape of the protein. First time the protein can do its job. Help together by R-groups-amino acids’s identity point
  33. Quaternary
    structure
    • happens
    • when many proteins clump together
  34. Chaperones
    • protein
    • assembly helpers
  35. Pyrimidines
    • T/U
    • and C
  36. Purines
    • A
    • and G
  37. Delta-G
    • free
    • energy
  38. Negative
    delta
    • g means you have energy. Have an exergonic reaction-giving
    • away NRG
  39. Positive
    delta
    • g means you need energy. You have an endergonic
    • reaction-absorbing NRG
  40. Hydrolysis between phosphate bonds 2 and 3 release energy
    from ATP
  41. Competitive
    inhibition
    • binds
    • directly to active site
  42. negative
    and positive feedback
  43. Nucleus
    guardian of DNA
  44. Ribosomal
    RRibosomal
    Ribosomal
    RNA
    is made in nucleolus
  45. Rough
    ER
    ribosomes and secretes proteins
  46. Smooth
    ER
    synthesizes lipids and does detoxification
  47. Golgi
    apparatus
    • receives, warehouses, and ships/ puts zip codes on cell -UPS
    • of the cell
  48. Mitochondiral
    DNA
    comes from mother
  49. Mitochondrial
    matrix
    • has
    • “cliffs”
  50. Mitochondrial
    cristae
    • has
    • “folds”
  51. PLANTS
    QUESTIONS FROM CHAPTER 10
  52. Peroxisomes
    • detoxify
    • and neutralize
  53. Lysosomes
    degrade and break down
  54. Complex
    cells
    have small vacuoles and vice versa
  55. Microfilaments
    help your muscles move
  56. Intermediate
    filaments
    discover where cancer is metastasized from
  57. Cilia
    and flagella
    • help
    • with cell movement
  58. Microtubules
    • come
    • from centrioles
  59. Extracellular
    matrix
    relays information from outside of the cell
  60. Tight
    junctions
    • let
    • nothing through
  61. Anchoring
    junctions
    • join
    • cells
  62. Gap
    junctions
    let everything in
  63. Junctions
    are used for communication
  64. Hypotonic
    solution
    • majority
    • is water
  65. Hypertonic
    majority is solute
  66. Water is a solvent

    Salt is a solute
  67. Membrane
    • keep inside environment separated from outside
    • environment
  68. Amphopathic
    having polar and non-polar regions ex.- phospholipid bilayer
  69. Peripheral
    proteins
    • are
    • on outside or inside of cell
  70. Cholesterol
    • stabilizes
    • the cell membrane
  71. Glycoprotein’s
    • cellular
    • identity
  72. Diffusion
    • substance
    • moves from high concentration to lower
  73. Osmosis-
    when water moves from higher to lower
  74. Uniports
    • one
    • substance in one direction
  75. Symport
    • 2
    • substances in one direction
  76. Anitport
    • two
    • substances in opposite direction
  77. Aquaporins-
    • rapid
    • transportation of water
  78. Cotransport
    transferring two things at the same time
  79. Exocytosis-
    transport substances outside of the cell
  80. Endocytosis
    transports substances into the cell
  81. Phagocytosis
    cells ingesting germs/particles
  82. Pinocytosis
    • cells
    • ingesting water
  83. What
    occurs during oxidation?
    • lose
    • a hydrogen
  84. Reduction
    • gain
    • an electron
  85. Energy
    intermediaries
    • carry
    • hydrogen form one place to another
  86. Chemiosmosis
    • generates a concentration gradient and use it later to
    • produce ATP
  87. Substrate
    level phosphorylation
    • adding a phosphate to a substrate and breaking the bonds
    • later to produce ATP
  88. ETC
  89. poisons
  90. Somatic
    cells
    • body
    • cells
  91. Gametes
    • sex
    • cells
  92. Cell
    Cycle
    Interphase

    • G1- number
    • of proteins increase and cells grows larger

    • S phase-
    • DNA synthesis

    • G2- gets
    • ready for division

    G zero- cell cycle stops and repairs any damage


    Checkpoints-G1, G2, M phase
  93. Mitosis
    -cells are always diploid

    -somatic cells

    - 46 chromosomes
  94. density
    dependent inhibition
    when two cells meet they stop dividing
  95. anchorage
    dependency
    • cell breaks off from where it is supposed to be, it stops
    • dividing
  96. P53
    controls cell suicide “guardian genome”
  97. Apoptosis
    programmed cell suicide
  98. Necrosis
    normal cell death
  99. Meiosis
    -gametes

    • -diploid
    • from prophase I to Anaphase I

    • -becomes haploid
    • at Telophase 1

    • -Meiosis 2
    • always haploid
  100. Prophase 1
    Synapsis- chromosomes pair

    • Chiasmata-crossing
    • over of pairs, exchange info
  101. Karyotype
    • picture
    • of chromosome pairs
  102. Allele
    • variation
    • of a gene
  103. Phenotype
    • physical
    • characteristic
  104. Genotype
    genetic makeup
  105. Homozygous
    • two of the same alleles for a trait. Can be dominant or
    • recessive (BB or bb)
  106. Heterozygrous
    • one
    • dominant allele and one recessive allele
  107. Hemizygous
    • gene
    • with only one allele
  108. Locus
    location on a gene
  109. Law
    of segregation
    alleles on homologous chromosomes are pulled apart
  110. Independent
    assortment
    random combination of chromosomes of the metaphase plate
  111. sry
    • male
    • determining gene
  112. look up 6 cards
  113. DNA
    • -antiparallel
    • -sythesized 5’ to 3’
    • -Nucleotides
    • are added on 3’ end
  114. ENZYMES FOR REPLICATION
    Helicase, Topoisomerase, single strand binding proteins, primase, DNA polymerase 3, DNA polymerase 1, DNA ligase
  115. DNA is made of
    -5 carbon sugar

    • -nitrogenous
    • bases

    -phosphate group
  116. People
    • Hershey
    • and Chase, Erwin Chargoff, Watson and Crick, Messelson and Stahl.
  117. Transcription and translation
  118. Transcription
    initiation complex
    RNA polymerase and transcription factors bound to DNA
  119. RNA
    polymerase
    unwinds DNA, adds nucleotides 5’ to 3’



    5’ cap added to 5’ end

    poly-a tail added to 3’ end

    introns-coded regions
  120. introns
    • coded
    • regions
  121. exonsnon
    coded regions
    • non
    • coded regions
  122. RNA
    splicing
    • introns
    • removed, exons slide together
  123. Mutations
    • -silent
    • -missense
    • -nonsense
  124. Viruses
    -cannot reproduce by themselves

    • -made up of
    • nucleic acids and protein coats

    -NOT a cell
  125. capsid
    • protein
    • shell around the virus. Made up of capsomeres
  126. viral
    envelope
    • covers
    • some capsids
  127. LYTIC AND LYSOGENIC CYCLE
  128. Temperate
    virus
    • can
    • do both lytic and lysogenic cycles
  129. Retrovirus
    • DNA
    • made from RNA using reverse transcriptase
  130. HIV
    -Single stranded RNA virus

    • -Florida is
    • number 3 for HIV
  131. pandemic
    • worldwide
    • for influenza viruses
  132. Plant virus
    • -Spread
    • horizontally or vertically
  133. Viroids
    • circular
    • RNA
    • do
    • not encode proteins
  134. Prions
    misfolded proteins
  135. Jean Lamarck
    -use/disuse

    • -inheritance
    • of acquired characteristics
  136. Charles Darwin
    -naturalist and specimen collecter

    • -believed
    • in gradualism
  137. Origin of Species ( 2 main ideas)
    • 1.
    • Descent with modification

    • 2.
    • Natural selection

    • -overproduction of individuals
    • -genetic
    • variation
    • - environment must favor some
    • variations over others
  138. Population

    Species

    Gene pool



    Variation in population
  139. Hardy-weinberg and formulas
    p + q = 1

    p2 + 2pq2 + q2 = 1
  140. Conditions for hardy-weinberg to work
  141. Genetic Drift
  142. 3 modes of selection

    Heterozygote advantage

    Frequency dependent selection

    Natural Variation
  143. Geological Barriers

    Tempo of speciation

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