The Middle Stone Age period between the end of the paleolithic and the start of the neolithic; referred to as Archaic cultures in the Americas.
Term used to refer to Mesolithic cultures in the Americas.
A Mesolithic culture living in the lands that are now Israel, Lebanon, and western Syria, between about 10,200 and 12,500 years ago.
a small blade of flint or similar stone, which were hafted together in handles or shafts made of wood, bone, or antler to make tools; widespread in the Mesolithic.
the profound cultural change beginning about 10,000 years ago and associated with the early domestication of plants and animals and settlement in permanent villages. Sometimes referred to as the Neolithic transition.
the creation, invention, or discovery by chance of a completely new idea, method, or device.
the deliberate application or modification of an existing idea, method, or device.
an evolutionary process whereby humans modify, either intentionally or unintentionally, the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals, sometimes to the extent that members of the population are unable to survive and/or reproduce without human assistance.
the region encompassing central and southern mexico and northern central america
cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes.
the cultivation of food plants in soil prepared and maintained for crop production. involves using technologies other than hand tools, such as irrigation, fertilizers, and the wooden or metal plow pulled by harnessed draft animals.
breeding and managing large herds of domesticated grazing and browsing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, horses, llamas, or camels.
in anthropology, a type of society marked by the presence of cities, social classes, and the state.
in the old world, the period marked by the production of tools and ornaments of bronze; began about 5,000 years ago in China and Southwest Asia and about 500 years earlier in Southeast Asia.
unequal distribution of sociocultural and material resources based on rationalized ranking of groups.
items such as utensils, figurines, and personal possessions, symbolically placed in the grave for the deceased person's use in the afterlife.
the theory that explains civilization's emergence as the result of the construction of elaborate irrigation systems, the functioning of which required full-time managers whose control blossomed into the first governing body and elite social class.
centralized political system with monopoly of legitimized force
the theory that self-serving actions by forceful leaders play a role in civilization's emergence.
a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of life and the universe.
in biology, a subspecies or a population of a species differing geographically, morphologically, or genetically from other populations of the same species; not applicable to people because the division of humans into discrete types does not represent the true nature of human biological variation. in some societies, race is an important social category.
a doctrine of superiority by which one group justifies the dehumanization of others based on their distinctive physical characteristics.
describing species with alternative forms (alleles) of particular genes.
describing the expression of genetic variants in different frequencies in different populations of a species.
epicanthic eye fold
a fold of skin at the inner corner of the eye that covers the true corner of the eye; common in Asiatic populations.
a sugar that is the primary constituent of fresh milk
an enzyme in the small intestine that enables humans to assimilate lactose.
human genotype that permits efficient storage of fat to draw on in times of food shortage and conservation of glucose and nitrogen.
the chemical responsible for dark skin pigmentation that helps protect against damage from ultraviolet radiation
a permanent phenotypic variation derived from interaction between genes and the environment during the period of growth and development
a physical difference among related people from distinct generations that allows anthropologists to make inferences about environmental effects on growth and development
a short-term physiological change in response to a specific environmental stimulus. an immediate short-term response is not very efficient and is gradually replaced by a longer term response.
long-term physiological adjustments made in order to attain an equilibrium with a specific environmental stimulus.
the tendency for the bodies of mammals living in cold climates to be shorter and rounder than members
the tendency for the bodies of mammals living in cold climates to have shorter appendages (arms and legs) than members of the same species living in warm clothes.
a cyclic expansion and contraction of the blood vessels of the limbs that balances releasing enough heat to prevent frostbite while maintaining heat in the body core.
a patterned set of ideas and practices relating to illness.
the meanings and elaborations given to a particular physical state
a specific pathology; a physical or biological abnormality
studies human health and disease, health care systems, and biocultural adaptation.
the public health term for a disease that is wide spread in a population
an infectious protein lacking any genetic material but capable of causing the reorganization and destruction of other proteins.
the presence of multiple medical systems, each with its own practices and beliefs in a society
physical and/or psychological harm (including repression, environmental destruction, poverty, hunger, illness, and premature death) caused by exploitative and unjust social, political, and economic systems.
a difference in the health status between the wealthy elite and the poor in stratified societies