Anatomy 15-26 44-47

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Anatomy 15-26 44-47
2010-01-27 17:55:19

Anatomy 15-26 44-47
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  1. where are growing long bones prone to fracture
  2. most physes close by what age?
    1 year
  3. how are physeal fractures closed? why
    salter or salter harris

  4. how many salter harris fractures are there?
    list/ what do they involve
    • SH 1. involves just the physis
    • 2. physis and thru metaphysis
    • 3. physis and epiphysis (articular)
    • 4. thru jt and across physis
    • 5. compression fracture of physis
  5. most common type of physeal fracture
  6. what physeal fractures have a good prognosis
    1 and 2
  7. why do types 3 and 4 have poor prognosis?
    articular surfaces involved must align anatomically of DJD
  8. how are compression and traction physeal fractures treated?
    • compression: immobilization
    • traction: immobilize and counteract pull of the attached muscle
  9. when are the majority of the physes of the limbs closed?

    by 1 year except iliac crest 1-2.5 and pelvic symphysis 5-6 and possibly head of the humerus
  10. what are the last physes of the shoulder and stifle to close?
    head of the humerus 13 mo and tibil tuberosity
  11. when does the physis of the anconeal process close
    4-6 months ( conisdered ununited if open at 6 mo)
  12. why is the median nerve more in danger in the cat than dog if the humerus is fractured?
    supracondylar canal
  13. what is failure of the anconeal process to fuse with the unla by 6 months of age?
    ununited anconeal process
  14. what improper development commonly leads to arthritis of the elbow
    fragmented medial coronoid process
  15. what small sesamoid bone on the medial carpus may be mistaken for a chip when seen in xrays
    sesamoid bone of the oblique capral extensor
  16. what must be removed when declawing to prevent regrowth
    dorsdal part of the ungual crest
  17. facture whose bone twisted apart
    spiral fracture
  18. what fractures do and do not penetrate the skin
    • simple dont
    • compound do
  19. fracture where bone of the skull is pushed inward
    depressed fracture
  20. what is the name for the separation of a small fragments of bone where a ligament of a tendon attaches
    avulsion fracture
  21. fracture that is a small piece of bone chipped off a bone
    chip fracture
  22. flat piece of bone separated common in horse carpals
    slab fracture
  23. fracture that has splinted into many fragments
    comminuted fractures
  24. fracture where the broken endds of the bone are driven into each other
    impacted fracture
  25. inflammation of the bone
    osteomyeltis or ostetitis
  26. what is a piece of dead bone separated from the rest of the bone in osteomyelitis..... must be removed to heal
  27. common sources to harvest cancellous bone
    tibial tuberosity, greater tubercle of the humerus, greater trocanter of the femur, wing of the ilium
  28. what is inflammation of a tendon, tendon sheath?
    tendinitis, tendosynovitis
  29. what is osteochondrosis OC
    a defect in endochondral ossification which causes the deeper layers of articular acrtilage to die
  30. what is osteochondrosis dissecans OCD
    osteochondrosis with a dissecting flap or separated piece of cartilage (joint mouse)
  31. what is the most common place for osteochondrosis in dogs
    shoulder, head of humerus
  32. list name for inflammation of a joint
    arthritis, osteoarthritis, osteoarthrosis, ostoearthrophy
  33. what is an infection in a joint where bacteria, virus and or fungus that causes cartilage damage
    septic (infectious, bacterial) arthritis
  34. DJD
    degenerative joint disease
  35. what is an osseous (bony) outgrowth seen radiographically
    osteophyte/ bone spur
  36. what is the term for an increase in the density of a bone
  37. what is immobility and consolidation of a joint due to disease, injury or surgical procedure
  38. what is destruction of a bone, seen as reduced density (blk)
  39. what is luxation or a dislocation
    complete loss of contact btw articular surfaces of a joint
  40. subluxation
    partial loss of contact btw articular surfaces of a joint
  41. why are articular fractures difficult to treat
    much achieve anatomical reduction and rigid skeletal fixation to perfectly align the carto;age surface or it will rapidly lead to DJD
  42. what is a possible sequela to Salter type 5 fracture (compression)
    angular limb deformity (valgus and Varus deviation of bones from the axis of the limb past joint)
  43. what is valgus and varus
    • Valgus: lateral deviation of bones past the joint L=LATERAL
    • Varus: medial deviation of bones past the joint
  44. what results from twisting or overstretching a joint causing a ligament to tear or separate from its bony attachment
  45. what is inflammation of a bursae
  46. what muscles must be transected to remove the entire forelimb including the scapula
    all the extrinsic muscle of the forelimb
  47. what is atrophy of supraspinatus and infraspinatus mm which causes a prominent scapular spine called and when causes it
    • sweeney
    • suprascapular nerve damage
  48. what results from radial nerve paralysis of the extensors of the thoracis limb
    inability to stand, knuckling over of digits
  49. what is the most impt layer that must be opposed when closing a paramedian midline incision
    external rectus sheath
  50. what is the most impt structure to close in a midline incision
    linea alba
  51. how would you locate the trachea for an emergency tracheostomy
    skin incision in the ventral neck, sep strap mm
  52. what muscle and nerve must be functional to bear weight on the pelvic limb
    quadriceps m and femoral nerve
  53. what muscles are paralysed with obturator nerve damage resulting inlateral slipping on a slick surface
    adductor m
  54. why does an animal knuckle over on the pelvic limb with fibular (peroneal) nerve damage
    paralysis of extensors of the digits
  55. what is the only laryngeal muscle which opens the glottic cleft
    cricoarytenoides dorsalis m
  56. what muscles do the facial nerve innervate
    muscles of facial expression, orbicularis oculi m
  57. what muscles are innervated by the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve
    muscles of mastication
  58. what do the 3, 4, 6 cranial nerve innervate
    extrinsic mm of the eye
  59. what does thehypoglossal muscle nerve innervate