BIO Lab Final
Card Set Information
BIO Lab Final
Biology Lab Final Exam
5 Steps of the Scientific Method
3 components of Cell Theory
-The Cell is the basic unit of life
-Every living thing is composed of 1 or more cells
-Every cell descends from a pre-existing cell (living cells give rise to new cells)
The semi-fluid matrix that suspends all organelles; Assembly and storage of proteins takes place here
Contains all the chromosomes; Message center of the cell
Lipid and protein synthesis in the cell
Modifies and ships proteins to other parts of the cell
Produces energy by breaking down chemical energy through aerobic respiration
Living membrane that encloses the entire cell
Ability to maintain a constant internal environment despite the outside environmental conditions
Prokaryotic cell characteristics not held by eukaryotic cells
No nuclear membrane or membrane-bound organelles
Nucleolus not present
Nuclear body is called 'nucleoid'
Eukaryotic cell characteristics not held by prokaryotic cells
Nuclear body is called 'nucleus'
Organisms that are complete and independent as single cells. Ex. Kingdom Protista
Organisms that contain different cells; Organized into tissues and organs. Ex. Kingdoms Fungi, Animalia, and Plantae
Group of single celled organisms; If seperated, can survive and function as single cells
Different types of these cells serve different functions; Make up organs and tissues of body
Storage tank for plant cells; stores water, protein, salt, carbs, and waste
Traps energy from sunlight and converts it into food and usable energy for the plant; "Powerhouse"
Rigid outer cell wall in plants; Maintains cell shape and protects cell from damage; "Armor"
Internal framework of animal cells
Plant cell characteristics not held by animal cells
Rigid cells wall made of cellulose (provides structure and support)
Contain chloroplasts (autotrophic)
Large central vacuole (controls water movement and nutrient transfer)
Animal cell characteristics not held by plant cells
No cell wall-only plasma membrane (cytoskeleton provides structure and support)
No chloroplasts (heterotrophic)
No large central vacuole (have digestive and circulatory system)
Dispersal of molecules from an area of higher to lower concentration
Living cells have membranes that are _____ _____ to solvents.
Concentration of salts and sugars in the cell vs in the liquid surrounding the cell
The diffusion of water from an area of higher to lower concentration; Plasma membrane allows it to flow in and out of cell; Helps regulate tonicity-balance the cell
3 Tonicity States
More solutes (salts and sugars) inside the cell than outisde of the cell; Normal state for plants
Concentration of solutes higher outside of the cell than inside
Balance of solutes outside and inside the cell; No movement of water; Normal for animal cells
In plants, causes the cell membrane to seperate from the cellw all due to a hypertonic solution-cell dies; salt water kills plants
____ can absorb wavelengths from solar radiation.
Process by which plants, some bacterian, and some protistans use external loght energy to produce internal energy.
Energy + 12 H
0 + 6 CO
O +6 O
What are the reactants in photosynthesis?
What are the products of photosynthesis?
Animals' energy come from...
Left to right with formula represents _______, while right to left represents ________.
phtosynthesis; aerobic respiration
What rough percentage of an organisms energy goes towards respiration?
Energy production from oxygen
What is the byproduct of respiration?
Energy production without oxygen.
3 main products of anaerobic respiration
Chloroplast contain ____ that gives plants a green color.
Cellular duplication (2 identical daughter cells)
Sexual reproduction (4 unique daughter cells [gametes])
3 reasons cells divide
5 steps of mitosis that involve the division of the nucleus
Final division step of mitosis where the rest of the cell divides; organelles split up
The packaged DNA
One of the halves that make up the chromosome
The connecting point of the chromatids
Phase where cells functions as designed OR Cell enters into mitosis (growth and repair)
Phase where chromosomes are formed and spindles begin to develop
Phase where nuclear envelope breaks; Centrosomes move to opposite sides of the cell; Chromosomes line up in the middle of cell; Longest phase (20 min)
Phase where sister chromatids seperate; Shortest phase (few minutes)
Phase where cell begins to develop into 2 cells; nuclear envelope starts to develop around chromatids; DNA begins to unwind; Division of nucleus complete
Phase where cytoplasm and everything in it divides
Animal cell division characteristics not held by plant cells
Forms a clevage furrow
Microtubules pinch cell into two
Plant cell division characteristics not held by animal cells
Form a cell plate
Forms along the equator that becomes the cell wall
Father of modern genetics
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
What is Mendel known for working with?
What did Gregor Mendel do?
Traced characteristics of successive generations.
How many alleles per gene?
2 (mom and dad)
Genetic makeup of an organism; trait that is not seen
Physical expression or observable characteristic of the genotype (what you see, ex. eye color)
Holds the information to pass on traits to offspring
Alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait (brown or blue eyes)
Allele expressed even if just one is present
Allele expressed only if there are 2 present
The __ chromosome is linger than the __ chromosome, thus most sex-linked traits are linked to the __ chromosome.
X; Y; X
Developed the concept of natural selection.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
_____ do NOT evolve. _____ do.
H.B.D. Kettlewell conducted an experiment on
dark and peppered moths