Biology Final.txt

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Biology Final.txt
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ch1 - ch24
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  1. Homeostasis
    maintaining a living system w/i an acceptable range.
  2. Cell
    theory
    all cells come from pre-existing cells
  3. Prokaryotic
    cells
    do not have a mitochondria or a nucleus
  4. Order
    of taxonomy
    Kingdom, phylum ,class, order, family, genus, species
  5. First
    step of scientific method
    review accumulated scientific data

    Different between a null and alternative hypothesis

    • Null- no
    • difference



    A hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable
  6. 4 elements that make up 96% of all living matter
    • Hydrogen,
    • Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon
  7. Valence
    how many electrons you need to maintain stability
  8. Valence
    electrons
    how many electrons you have in your outer shell
  9. Octet
    rule
    an atom need 8 electrons in its outer shell to maintain stability
  10. Covalent
    bonds
    electrons are shared
  11. Ionic
    bonds
    electrons are transferred
  12. Hydrogen
    bonds
    bonds between molecules
  13. Isotopes
    differ in the number of neutrons
  14. Cohesion
    two of the same substances stick to themselves
  15. Adhesion
    • two
    • different substances stick to each other
  16. Surface
    tension
    • level of difficulty involved in breaking or stretching the
    • surface of a liquid
  17. Heat
    of vaporization
    • how
    • much energy it takes to change from liquid to gas
  18. Specific
    heat
    amount of heat you need to change the temperature of one gram of something
  19. Buffer
    • substances
    • that minimize changes in hydronium or hydroxide
  20. functional
    groups
    • hydroxyl= OH
    • Carbonyl= CO
    • Carboxyl= COOH
    • Amino= NH2
    • Sulfhydryl= SH
    • Phosphate= PO4
    • Methyl= CH3
  21. Enantiomers
    • variations around an asymetric carbon
    • non-superimposable mirror images
    • L-Dopa is effective against Parkinson's while it's enantiomer D-Dopa is biologically inactive
  22. Geometric isomer
    variations around a double bond
  23. Stuctural Isomer
    variations in arrangement
  24. Isomer
    same molecular formula but different structure

    Structural

    Geometric

    Enantiomer
  25. Hydrolysis
    • breaking
    • something apart via water
  26. Condensation
    synthesis
    • when
    • you remove water to put something together
  27. Amino
    acids have
    CHONP
  28. Proteins
    have
    CHON
  29. Carbohydrates
    have
    CHO
  30. Lipids
    have
    CH
  31. Building
    blocks for protein
    amino acids
  32. Primary
    structure
    the unique sequence of amino acids. Held together by peptide bonds
  33. Secondary
    Structure
    • alpha or beta pleated sheets. Help together by hydrogen
    • bonds
  34. Tertiary
    structure
    actual 3D shape of the protein. First time the protein can do its job. Held together by R-groups-amino acids’s identity point
  35. Quaternary
    structure
    • happens
    • when many proteins clump together
  36. Chaperones
    • protein
    • assembly helpers
  37. Pyrimidines
    • T/U
    • and C
  38. Purines
    • A
    • and G
  39. Delta-G
    • free
    • energy
  40. Negative
    delta
    • g means you have energy. Have an exergonic reaction-giving
    • away NRG
  41. Positive
    delta
    • g means you need energy. You have an endergonic
    • reaction-absorbing NRG
  42. Hydrolysis between phosphate bonds 2 and 3 release energy
    from ATP
  43. Competitive
    inhibition
    • binds
    • directly to active site
  44. negative
    and positive feedback
  45. Nucleus
    guardian of DNA
  46. Ribosomal
    RRibosomal
    Ribosomal
    RNA
    is made in nucleolus
  47. Rough
    ER
    ribosomes and secretes proteins
  48. Smooth
    ER
    synthesizes lipids and does detoxification
  49. Golgi
    apparatus
    • receives, warehouses, and ships/ puts zip codes on cell -UPS
    • of the cell
  50. Mitochondiral
    DNA
    comes from mother
  51. Mitochondrial
    matrix
    • has
    • “cliffs”
  52. Mitochondrial
    cristae
    • has
    • “folds”
  53. PLANTS
    QUESTIONS FROM CHAPTER 10
  54. Peroxisomes
    • detoxify
    • and neutralize
  55. Lysosomes
    degrade and break down
  56. Complex
    cells
    have small vacuoles and vice versa
  57. Microfilaments
    help your muscles move
  58. Intermediate
    filaments
    discover where cancer is metastasized from
  59. Cilia
    and flagella
    • help
    • with cell movement
  60. Microtubules
    • come
    • from centrioles
  61. Extracellular
    matrix
    relays information from outside of the cell
  62. Tight
    junctions
    • let
    • nothing through
  63. Anchoring
    junctions
    • join
    • cells
  64. Gap
    junctions
    let everything in
  65. Junctions
    are used for communication
  66. Hypotonic
    solution
    • majority
    • is water
  67. Hypertonic
    majority is solute
  68. Water is a solvent

    Salt is a solute
  69. Membrane
    • keep inside environment separated from outside
    • environment
  70. Amphopathic
    having polar and non-polar regions ex.- phospholipid bilayer
  71. Types of proteins
    peripheral- don't go through membrane

    integral- go through membrane
  72. Cholesterol
    • stabilizes
    • the cell membrane
  73. Glycoprotein’s
    • cellular
    • identity
  74. Diffusion
    • substance
    • moves from high concentration to lower
  75. Osmosis-
    when water moves from higher to lower
  76. Uniports
    • one
    • substance in one direction
  77. Symport
    • 2
    • substances in one direction
  78. Anitport
    • two
    • substances in opposite direction
  79. Aquaporins-
    • rapid
    • transportation of water
  80. Cotransport
    transferring two things at the same time
  81. Exocytosis-
    transport substances outside of the cell
  82. Endocytosis
    transports substances into the cell
  83. Phagocytosis
    cells ingesting germs/particles
  84. Pinocytosis
    • cells
    • ingesting water
  85. What
    occurs during oxidation?
    • lose
    • a hydrogen
  86. Reduction
    • gain
    • an electron
  87. Energy
    intermediaries
    • carry
    • hydrogen form one place to another
  88. Chemiosmosis
    • generates a concentration gradient and use it later to
    • produce ATP
  89. Substrate
    level phosphorylation
    • adding a phosphate to a substrate and breaking the bonds
    • later to produce ATP
  90. ETC
  91. poisons
  92. Somatic
    cells
    • body
    • cells
  93. Gametes
    • sex
    • cells
  94. Cell
    Cycle
    Interphase

    • G1- number
    • of proteins increase and cells grows larger

    • S phase-
    • DNA synthesis

    • G2- gets
    • ready for division

    G zero- cell cycle stops and repairs any damage


    Checkpoints-G1, G2, M phase
  95. Mitosis
    -cells are always diploid

    -somatic cells

    - 46 chromosomes
  96. density
    dependent inhibition
    when two cells meet they stop dividing
  97. anchorage
    dependency
    • cell breaks off from where it is supposed to be, it stops
    • dividing
  98. P53
    controls cell suicide “guardian genome”
  99. Apoptosis
    programmed cell suicide
  100. Necrosis
    normal cell death
  101. Meiosis
    -gametes

    • -diploid
    • from prophase I to Anaphase I

    • -becomes haploid
    • at Telophase 1

    • -Meiosis 2
    • always haploid
  102. Prophase 1
    Synapsis- chromosomes pair

    • Chiasmata-crossing
    • over of pairs, exchange info
  103. Karyotype
    • picture
    • of chromosome pairs
  104. Allele
    • variation
    • of a gene
  105. Phenotype
    • physical
    • characteristic
  106. Genotype
    genetic makeup
  107. Homozygous
    • two of the same alleles for a trait. Can be dominant or
    • recessive (BB or bb)
  108. Heterozygrous
    • one
    • dominant allele and one recessive allele
  109. Hemizygous
    • gene
    • with only one allele
  110. Locus
    location on a gene
  111. Law
    of segregation
    alleles on homologous chromosomes are pulled apart
  112. Independent
    assortment
    • random combination of chromosomes of the metaphase plate
    • homologous chromosomes find and pair up with eachother
  113. sry
    • male
    • determining gene
  114. look up 6 cards
  115. DNA
    • -antiparallel
    • -sythesized 5’ to 3’
    • -Nucleotides
    • are added on 3’ end
  116. ENZYMES FOR REPLICATION
    Helicase, Topoisomerase, single strand binding proteins, primase, DNA polymerase 3, DNA polymerase 1, DNA ligase
  117. DNA is made of
    -5 carbon sugar

    • -nitrogenous
    • bases

    -phosphate group
  118. Transcription
    initiation complex
    RNA polymerase and transcription factors bound to DNA
  119. RNA
    polymerase
    unwinds DNA, adds nucleotides 5’ to 3’



    5’ cap added to 5’ end

    poly-a tail added to 3’ end

    introns-coded regions
  120. introns
    • coded
    • regions
  121. exonsnon
    coded regions
    • non
    • coded regions
  122. RNA
    splicing
    • introns
    • removed, exons slide together
  123. Mutations
    • -silent- no effect noticed; still codes for the same amino acid
    • -missense- results in a different amino acid
    • -nonsense- mutates into a stop codon; results in an incomplete polypeptide chain
  124. Viruses
    -cannot reproduce by themselves

    • -made up of
    • nucleic acids and protein coats

    -NOT a cell
  125. capsid
    • protein
    • shell around the virus. Made up of capsomeres
  126. viral
    envelope
    • covers
    • some capsids
  127. Retrovirus
    • DNA
    • made from RNA using reverse transcriptase
  128. HIV
    -Single stranded RNA virus

    • -Florida is
    • number 3 for HIV
  129. pandemic
    • worldwide
    • for influenza viruses
  130. Plant virus
    • -Spread
    • horizontally or vertically
  131. Viroids
    • circular
    • RNA
    • do
    • not encode proteins
  132. Prions
    misfolded proteins
  133. Jean Lamarck
    -use/disuse

    • -inheritance
    • of acquired characteristics
  134. Charles Darwin
    -naturalist and specimen collecter

    • -believed
    • in gradualism
  135. Origin of Species ( 2 main ideas)
    • 1.
    • Descent with modification

    • 2.
    • Natural selection

    • -overproduction of individuals
    • -genetic
    • variation
    • - environment must favor some
    • variations over others
  136. Population

    Species

    Gene pool



    Variation in population
  137. Hardy-weinberg and formulas
    • p=A frequency
    • q=a frequency
    • p + q = 1
    • p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
  138. Conditions for hardy-weinberg to work
  139. Genetic Drift
  140. 3 modes of selection

    Heterozygote advantage

    Frequency dependent selection

    Natural Variation
  141. Geological Barriers

    Tempo of speciation
  142. Rotenone
    blocks protein channel one
  143. oligomycin
    blocks atp synthase
  144. carbon monoxide & cyanide
    blocks oxygen by attaching to hemoglobin
  145. DNP
    eats hole in cristae
  146. When NADH and FADH are oxidized in the ETC, what kind of transportation is that?
    active transport
  147. Active transport
    from lower concentration to higher
  148. Facillitative Diffusion
    moving from higher concentration to lower WITH protein
  149. Exergonic
    release energy
  150. Endergonic
    absorb energy
  151. inhibitor
    blocks enzyme action
  152. Non-competitive inhibitor
    enters through secondary site, then changes the shape of active site
  153. glycolosis of 1 glucose yields how many turns of the krab's cycle?
    2
  154. from 4 glucose molecules, how many ATP is made during complete cellular respiration?
    154
  155. grana are composed of stocks called?
    Thylakoids
  156. glycoprotein
    cellular identity tags
  157. passive diffusion
    from high to low
  158. electrogenic pump
    pump ions in and out of membrane
  159. penocytosis
    water entering the cell
  160. Phagocytosis
    germs enter the cell
  161. telomere
    controls cell suicide
  162. telomerase
    keeps telomeres lengthened
  163. Eukaryotes
    add a 5' cap and a Poly A tail to mRNA
  164. Translation process
    • 1. tRNA lands on Psite and exits off of Esite
    • 2.2nd tRNA lands on Asite, codes for specific peptide and then chain shifts to Psite.
    • 3.entire structure of large, small ribosomal subunit breaks apart and completed polypeptide leaves
  165. Translation
    • use of mRNA and tRNA and ribosomes to make polypetide chains.
    • in cytoplasm
    • Esite - tRNA exits
    • Psite - polypeptide chain grows
    • Asite - tRNA arrives
  166. Codon
    A triplet of nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid
  167. Start codon
    • AUG(mRNA)
    • UAC(tRNA)
  168. Stop Codon
    UAG, UGA, UAA
  169. Nirenberg
    • 1st person to decipher codons
    • occur in triplets
    • four codons 43 = 64 nucleotides
  170. Beadle and Tatum
    • both won nobel prizes
    • worked with bread molds
    • discovered that DNA needs proteins
  171. DNA replication models
    • conservative- parent strands remain intact, new DNA composed of all new nucleotides
    • semiconservative- both parent and new DNA are composed of one new strand and one old strand of DNA
    • dispersive- both parent and new DNA are composed of old and new on both strands
  172. DNA Replication info
    • DNA is always synthesized from 5'-> 3'
    • new nucleotides are added on at the 3' end
    • okazaki fragments happen on the lagging strand
    • Eukaryotic cells have multiple replication bubbles happening simultaneously
  173. Watson and Crick
    • both won nobel prizes
    • stole photo from Franklin to determine the 3D shape of the DNA double helix
  174. Messelson and Stahl
    • didn't win nobel prizes
    • proved semi-conservative model correct
    • E coli replicate in N15 for 20 minutes
    • E coli replicate in N14 for 20 minutes
    • centrofuge for 20 minutes- one band disproved
    • centrofuge for 20 more minutes- two bands appeared and disproved dispersive
  175. Erwin Chargoff
    • didn't win a nobel prize
    • A always pairs with T
    • C always pairs with G
  176. Rosalind Franklin
    • didn't win a nobel prized
    • took first picture of DNA
  177. Hershey and Chase
    • Only Hershey won a Nobel prize
    • DNA is hereditary material
    • bacterial phage virus that infects bacteria
    • 1. radioactive sulfur; found sulfur in proteins
    • 2. radioactive phosphate; triphosphate found in DNA
    • 3. give bacteriophage to infect E coli
    • use a blander to seperate
    • 5. centrophuge sample, seperate component; inside the pellet is phosphorous
  178. Transcription
    • Use DNA template to create messenger RNA
    • occurs in nucleus
    • 1. Find promoter region(TATA box)
    • 2. Elongation- RNA polymerase adds nucleotide links together
    • 3. stop codon reached and everything breaks apart
  179. If there are 70 nucleotides and 15 areA. how many are G?
    • 15 A's means 15 T's
    • 70 - 30 = 40
    • 40 = G + C
    • 20
  180. DNA synthesis process
    • Helicase- unwinds and seperates DNA strands
    • Topoisomerase- prevents overwinding of DNA
    • Single-Stranded binding protein- keep strands seperated
    • Primase- sets RNA primer (uses RNA nucleotides)
    • DP3- brings and links bases together
    • DP1- removes DNA primer
    • Ligase- links okasaki fragments
  181. How many bonds between T and A
    2
  182. How many bonds between C and G?
    3
  183. anticodon
    is on top 5' > 3'
  184. Which enzyme synthesizes m-RNA?
    RNA Polymerase
  185. Temperate virus
    can do both lysogenic and lytic cycles
  186. Lytic cycle
    • it destroys the cell; viralent virus if only lytic
    • 1. Phage attaches to cell surface
    • 2. Phages injects DNA
    • 3. Enzymes destroy host DNA
    • 4. Phage genome directs host to produce phage components(DNA, proteins)
    • 5. Spontaneous self-assembly
    • 6. Cell lyses
    • 7. Releases new phages, repeats steps
  187. Lysogenic Cycle
    • Viral genome reproduced without destroying host
    • 1. DNA injected into host
    • 2.. DNA inserted into host cell chromosome
    • 3. prophage genome copied with cell's DNA, passed on to daughter cells, repeat
    • 4. Prophage leaves bacterial chromosome
    • 5. May start lytic cycle
  188. 2008 Nobel Prize in Medicine
    • Harald zur hausen- for discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer
    • Francoise Barre & Luc Montagnier- for discovery of human immunodeficiency virus
  189. Horizontal Spreading
    virus from external source(insect, gardening tools)
  190. Vertical Spreading
    inherit from parent(asexual cuttings, sexually via seeds)
  191. Population
    group of individuals of a species sharing common geographic area
  192. Species
    Group of populations that have potential to interbreed in nature
  193. Gene Pool
    • All genes in population at any one time
    • includes all alleles at all gene loci in all individuals in a population
  194. Fixed Gene Pool
    all members are identical homozygotes for trait
  195. Not FIxed Gene Pool
    each allele has a relative frequency
  196. Genetic Drift
    Founder Effect- few individuals colonize new habitat

    Bottleneck Effect- Population drastically reduced by natural disaster
  197. Heterozygot advantage
    heterozygotes have greater survivorship and reproductive success than homozygotes
  198. S Phase
    • DNA synthesis
    • skipped after meiosis 1
  199. restriction point
    • happens in cell cycle
    • in G1
  200. Centromere
    holds two sister chromatids together
  201. Spindle Fiber
    • in meiosis 1- pulls homologous chromosomes apart
    • in meiosis II - pulls chromatids apart
    • if it breaks, it leads to nondisjunction
  202. 2n
    • number of different types of gametes that can be made
    • n = number of heterozygous pairs
  203. Tetrad
    • Holds a homologous pair of chromosomes together
    • 2n = 46
    • 46 chromosomes
    • 23 homologous chromosomes
    • 92 sister chromatids
    • 23 tetrads
    • 46 centromeres
  204. Nondisjunction
    • Homologous chromosomes fail to seperate
    • Down's syndrome is a result of nondijunstion of the 21st chromosome
  205. Kleinfelter's syndrome
    • too many x chromosomes
    • male would have xxy
    • calico cats
  206. Translocation
    part of a chromosome breaks off and sticks to another one
  207. Calico cats
    • blotches of fur are the result of barbodies(deactivated x chromosomes
    • fur color is on x
  208. Polygenis inheritance
    • Hundreds of genes contribute to a phenotype
    • ex: height
  209. Multiple alleles inheritance
    more than 2 alleles contribute to a genotype

    • abo blood system
    • universal donor- O
    • universal acceptor - ab
  210. Codominance
    • both genes equally show
    • ex: AB blood type
  211. Incomplete dominance
    • Neither gene shows
    • es: red + white = pink
  212. Chiasmata
    • sharing of DNA after synapsis happens
    • happens in prophase 1 of meiosis
  213. Synapsis
    • Pairing of homologous chromosomes
    • happens in prophase 1 of meiosis
  214. Cell Cycle
    • G1- cell increases in size and increases supply of proteins and organelles
    • S - DNA synthesis occurs
    • G2 - cell prepares for division, checks for DNA damage
    • G0 - cell stops(escape hatch)
    • M - Miotic Phase
  215. Binary fission
    • when organisms reproduce asexually by splitting in two
    • daughter cells recieve identical copy of parent's gene's
  216. Diploid number in Humanns
    46
  217. Kinase
    enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to another molecule
  218. cyclins
    chemicals that make the cycle go around
  219. CDK
    cyclin dependent kinase
  220. Glysomeny syndrome
    develop cancer by 33, no survival rate
  221. Leukemia
    genes regulated wrong way
  222. Mesophelioma
    asbestos fibers get into your tissues
  223. Fragile X syndrome
    • example of genomic imprinting- cells know which parent they came from
    • only causes developmental delay when mother transfers a broken x to son
  224. MPF
    • maturation promoting factor
    • general regulator of transition from G2 to M
  225. Pleiotropy
    • one gene has multiple effects
    • one gene causes red hair and freckles
    • Sickle cell anemia
    • Marfan's syndrome
  226. Autosomal recessive disorders
    • Cistic Fibrosis
    • Tay-sacs
    • sickle cell
  227. Autosomal Dominant disorders
    • Huntington's Disease
    • Achondroplasia
    • Neurofibromatosis
  228. Frequency Dependent selection
    success of any one morph declines if phenotypic form becomes too common
  229. Nuetral variation
    • variation with no selective advantage/disadvantage, no impact on reproductive success
    • Ex: Human fingerprints
  230. Geographical Barrier
    • allopatric
    • initial block to gene flow is geographical barrier that physically seperates the population
    • Ex: mountain ranges, glaciers
    • Effectiveness depends on the ability of organisms to disperse
  231. Tempo of Speciation
    • Gradualism versus punctuated equilibrium
    • gradualism- gradually evolves in tiny steps

    punctuated eq- most sexually reproducing species will experience little net evolutionary change for most of their geological history,
  232. Conditions for hardy-weinberg to work
    no mutation

    no gene flow

    no natural selection

    large population

    random mating

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