PsychExam4

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jennywin
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54078
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PsychExam4
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2010-12-08 13:41:27
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history systems
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history and systems of psychology
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  1. An exorcism involving cutting a hole in the skull, the idea is that this would allow evil spirits to escape
    Trepanantion
  2. The father of modern medicine
    Hippocrates
  3. Extended Hippocrates' theory four basic temperaments
    Galen
  4. ________ is associated with sanguine (cheerful, lightheartedness)
    An imbalance of this would result in ___________.
    Blood, Mania
  5. ________ is associated with choleric temperament (fiery, passionate)An imbalance of this would result in ___________.
    Yellow Bile, Anger and Suspicion, Meaness (type A?)
  6. ________ is associated with melancholy (creative introspective)An imbalance of this would result in ___________.
    Black Bile, depression
  7. ________ is associated with phlegmatic personality (unemotional, shy)An imbalance of this would result in ___________.
    Green Bile (Phlegm), Apathy and Lazy, sluggish
  8. This theory states that an imbalance in bodily fluids would cause abnormal behavior. Opening a vein would cause the fluid that was most abundant to be released and leads to balance. This was practiced until the 19th century.
    Humoural Theory
  9. The belief here is that nothing is innate, everything including mental illnesses is learned.
    (B.F. Skinner) Behavioral Therapy
  10. A behaviorist who believes that undesired responses (abnormal behavior) can be extinguished and desired responses (normal behavior) can be reinforced.
    B.F. Skinner
  11. Replacing the undesired response with a different one (such as fear with calmness). This is sort of like reverse conditioning.

    Weaken associations b/w improper S-R chains
    Weaken associations b/w connected thoughts
    Behavioral Therapy
  12. He did away with the prisoner model of patient treatment. He engaged in conversations with patients, unchained them, and gave them fresh air and exercise
    Philippe Pinel, Moral Therapy
  13. He had an idea that those who were allowed to work while in therapy tended to show greater improvement.
    Benjamin Rush, Occupational Therapy
  14. He was the 1st US psychiatrist
    Benjamin Rush
  15. He believed that mental health was affected by the body's magnetic fields--an imbalance in this magnetism was believed to cause mental illnesses
    Franz Anton Mesmer, Animal Magnetism
  16. He had a therapeutic approach and had the 1st psychological clinic
    Lightner Witmer
  17. Accounts for many cases where simply believing that the treatment causes the cure is enough to make a patient feel better
    Power of Suggestion (Placebo Effect)
  18. Believed that those who suffered from hysteria were more persuaded by the power of suggestion than those who were not.

    He treated hysterical disorders
    Jean-Martin Charcot, Power of Suggestion & Hypnosis
  19. One of Charcot's students, and used hypnosis to help reveal the hidden motivations in the mind
    Sigmund Freud
  20. This view revolves around the concept of human free will. Individual freedom and liberty is important because it provides the means by which to exercise free will.
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Romanticism
  21. This view believes that humans are more than passive perceivers, reasoners and rationalizers. Need to include emotion, intuition, and the "whole" person
    Romanticism
  22. Romantics believe that every one is ______________.
    Inherently Good
  23. Rousseau believed that a man who lived on his own untouched by society would be found living in accordance to his own needs, and would not be selfish; rather he would be fulfilled
    Noble Savage
  24. Was a romantic who equated stress and suffering with daily living. He published Faust, 19th century, about a man who sold his soul to the devil in order to end his suffering. In the end, however, he realizes that freedom is the only path from suffering.
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
  25. His work illustrates that romanticism is more than a philosophy, it is an artistic movement.
    Goethe, Faust
  26. He believed that there was one main instinctual urge that drove everybody, Will to Survive
    Schopenhauer
  27. We live our lives trying to avoid pain and death
    Schopenhauer, Will to Survive
  28. The ability to rise above our innate desires and needs; this is a uniquely human ability. Someone who engages in this transcends the Will to Survive.
    Schopenhauer, Sublimination
  29. He criticized how people practiced religion, and believed that since truth was subjective, there was little to be gained from practicing a mechanical and ritualized ceremony.
    Soren Kierkegaard (Existentialism)
  30. Agreed that truth is subjective, and there is no universal truth. Rather than rely on religious determinism, you determine the outcomes of your life.
    Friedrich Nietzsche, (existentialism)
  31. He felt that everybody possessed the Will to Power.
    Nietzche
  32. The need to become something greater than one's self
    (Nietzche) Will to Power
  33. If we achieve our full potential, we become Superman, living on our own accord and by our own standards of morality. Rather than subliminating (transcending) we should embrace our Will to Power. One has to live with ________ _________ to achieve superman.
    Complete Freedom
  34. Similar to romanticism (free will and personal liberty) but it asks the important questions like "what is the meaning of life"
    Existentialism
  35. Felt that the unconscious mind is the source of our instinctual needs and urges
    Sigmund Freud
  36. Outlines the interplay of instinctual energies between various parts of personality. (Basic, and libido)
    Psychodynamics
  37. An aspect of personality that we are born with. It is a reservoir that contains our instincts.
    Id
  38. One way the id is ruled by the ____________ ____________, which is the idea that tension and frustration (created by psychical energy built up by an infant need)
    Pleasure Principle
  39. Babies are born all "id" The develop cognitively through a process called __________ __________, which is a series of associations experienced during need fulfillment. (learned associations)
    Primary Process
  40. The id also operates under the ______ ________. It does not decrease tension (frustration) and thus does not satisfy the pleasure principle. The buildup of excess psychical energy that comes from this frustration is used to create the ego.
    Fantasy Principle
  41. This forms the conscious (aware) mind and operates according to the __________ _________.
    Ego, reality principle
  42. Freud suggests that the ________ is required for the ego to operate. A child must be able to perceive the world before she can get what the id wants
    perception
  43. The ____ triggers the development of visions, motor, and other abilities.
    Ego
  44. The development of the perceptual and motor systems, as a result of frustration
    Secondary Process
  45. The _______ is subconscious and created to deal with social problems and issues of right and wrong with respect to satisfying needs of the id.
    Superego
  46. The content of the superego comes from _________ and represses morally objectionable instincts.
    The environment
  47. The superego(subconscious) is ruled by the ________ ___________.
    Fantasy Principle
  48. A list of morally correct behaviors
    Ego-Ideal
  49. A list of morally wrong behaviors
    Conscious
  50. What are the four tenets of Humanistic Psychology?
    • 1. All people are naturally good
    • 2. Subjective reality: Everybody is different
    • 3. Psychology is not a physical science
    • 4. Phenomenology
  51. Study of experience, thoughts, and feelings to better understand
    Phenomenology
  52. He believed that throughout our lives, we are thrown into situations without the chance to reflect on them and w must rely on instinct
    Martin Heidegger, Thrown-ness
  53. This is an example of subjective reality, the 2nd tenet of humanistic psychology
    Thrown-ness
  54. Finding the meaning in life, by subliminating--rising above---fears of death. Acceptance
    Authentic Life
  55. When one denies their own mortality and the resultant fear of death prevents one from making decisions necessary for personal growth.

    Faces guilt and and anxiety from lack of control
    Inauthentic Life
  56. Believed that life is full of suffering caused by the fear of death.
    Ludwig Binswanger
  57. Rising up above suffering; facing and embracing death so that we can find meaning in our lives. The goal of life is to find meaning in it
    Binswanger, Beyond the World
  58. We are simultaneously aware of what two opposing facts according to Rollo May?
    • 1. our subjective view of the world, center of the universe
    • 2. the fact that we are a speck in a vast, infinite universe

    (objectivity, and subjectivity)
  59. Feeling like nothing you do matter leads to this. We let people dictate what we do and rely on our instincts to guide us. (self alienation)
    Neurotic Anxiety
  60. What we experience when we exercise free will to make decisions over our own life. It requires courage to take over your own life, and this is accompanied by normal anxiety
    Normal Anxiety
  61. Maslow: The goal of humanistic psychology is to assist in ________ _________, or achieving one's full potential or maximizing one's personal growth
    Self-actualization
  62. This is similar to Nietzsche's Superman and Heidegger's Authentic Life
    Maslow's Self-Actualization
  63. Maslow Hierarchy of Needs: Barriers that must be overcome before one can achieve self-actualization. What are they in order?
    Physiological needs, Safety need, love and belonging, and esteem needs--->self-actualization
  64. Focused on the necessary conditions under which self-actualization can be achieved
    Carl Rogers
  65. Rogers felt that the most important need was ______ _______ and self respect that occurs as a function of receiving __________ __________ __________.
    self esteem, unconditional positive regard
  66. Loving you for you, rather than what you do from parents and loved ones
    Unconditional Positive Regard
  67. If you do not receive unconditional positive regard, you may develop this. This leads to living an inauthentic life. You feel like people will only like you for certain qualities.
    Conditional Worth
  68. Offers unconditional positive regard and urges the therapist to remain neutral, nurturing personal growth
    Client Centered Therapy

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