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an interpersonal influence process that attempts to motivate others to achieve goals that represent values of the leader and/or others (vision)
What are the 4 approaches to leadership?
- 1. Trait Approach
- 2. Behavioral Approach
- 3. Contingency/ Situational approach
- 4. Transformational/Charismatic Approach
What is the basic assumption of the Trait Approach?
leaders posses stable characteristics that differentiate them from non-leaders.
What is the strongest correlate of the Big 5 according the the Trait approach for leader emergence? what is the second?
Extraversion, then Conscienctiousness
In business settings, _______ (of the big 5) was hte strongest predictor?
Openess to exeriences
What is the key difference between the behavioral approach and the trait approach?
Behavioral approach says that leaders can be trained.
What are the 2 groups that behaviors can be clustered into?
- 1. Consideration- relationship behaviors
- 2. Initiating structure- task behaviors (organizing and strucuring work)
how much is consideration and initiating structure related to leadership? (each of them)
consideration= .48, initiating structure=.29
T/F- consideration more strongly related to follower
satisfaction (with job and leader) than follower motivation and leader effectiveness
T/F-initiating structure more strongly related to
follower motivation and leader effectiveness than follower satisfaction
Which approach places the importance of traits or behaviors for effecitive leadership contingent upon sitational facors?
Define the Substitutes for leadership theory
situational variables can substiture for, neutralize, or enhance the effects of a leader's behavior. (i.e. routines, group cohesiveness)
Define: Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory
- Leaders develop special relationships with a small gropu of followers (ingroup)
- --Ingroup members are more satisfied, perform better, and turnover less than out-group members
Define: Transformational Leadership.
Transformational leadership motivates followers to strive toward higher goals or vision that transcend thier immemdiate self-interests.
4 Characteristics of a Transformational leader:
- 1. Charismatic and trusted
- 2. Present a positive, appealing vision of the future
- 3.Seen as agents of change and innovation
- 4. Encourage and support followers
Define: Contingent Reward
Exchanging resources for follower support
Define Transactional Leadership
Reinforce followers for successful completion of thier end of the bargain (contingent rewards)
Define active management by exception and passive management by exception in transactional leadership
- Active- monitoring performance/taking corrective action
- Passive-intervening only when problem becomes serious
Define: Laissez Faire
avoiding leadership responsibilities
What are the correlations of the big 5 to transactional/transformational leadership?
- Openness to experience (.30)
- Agreeableness (.27)
- Extraversion (.25)
- Neuroticism (-.21)
- Conscientiousness (.19)
- 1.A special quality of leadership that captures the popular imagination and inspires unswerving allegiance and devotion.
- 2. A person who has some divinely inspired gift, grace, or talent.
- 3. Magnetic charm or appeal.
What is are the positive effects of charismatic leadership on: Leadership satisfaction, leader effectiveness, follower performance, and job satisfaction?
- Leadership satisfaction=.90
- Leader effectiveness=.82
- Follower performance=.36
- Job satisfaction=.31
According to Communicating with Charisma, when framing the goal do so in these 2 terms:
- 1. the significance of the mission
- 2. why it has arisen in the first place
T/F-When Communicating with Charisma you should allow your emotions to surface when speaking
T/F- when communicating with charisma, you should not employ metaphors, analyogies and stories when speaking because it confuses employees
False, try to use them often
T/F, When communicating with Charisma, you should from your mission around intrinisically appealing goals, and draw upon your values and beliefs in doing so.