Biology Lab Final

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Biology Lab Final
2010-12-08 09:51:10
animal plant diversity biology

Biology lab final animal & plant diversity
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  1. Which phyla are bilateral?
    Chordates, echinoderms, arthropods, annelids, mollusks, and platyhelminths
  2. Which phyla are radial?
  3. Which phyla are asymmetrical?
  4. Which phyla have coelomate?
    Chordates, echinoderms, arthropods, annelids, and mollusks
  5. Which phyla are deuterostomes?
    Chordates and echinoderms
  6. Which phyla are protosomes?
    Arthropods, annelids, and mollusks
  7. What is spongocoel?
    • The central cavity of sponges
    • Facilitates water circulation (not a digestive chamber because no digestive enzymes are released into cavity)
  8. What is the osculum?
    • The excurrent opening of sponges.
    • Where water leaves the songe
  9. What are spicules?
    a primitive form of the structural support of sponges
  10. What are cnidoblasts?
    • Stinging cells that all cnidarians have
    • Used for protection and for catching food
  11. What are nematocysts?
    Stinging devices on the surface of the tentacles that cnidarians discharge when they brush against a potential prey item or predator
  12. What is the sexual stage of the cnidarian life cycle?
    • Medusa
    • They contain gonads which are clusters of gametes (eggs and sperm)
  13. What does it mean that hydra are unusual?
    They can reproduce both asexually (like polyps by "budding") and sexually (with eggs and sperm, like the medusa form)
  14. Platyhelminths are the first phylum to have what?
    Bilateral symmetry, three distinct body layers and true organ systems: sensory, nervous, excretory, and reproductive systems
  15. What is cephalization and which animal displays it?
    • The differentiation and specialization of the anterior end of the body (in the head)
    • Flatworms
  16. What advantage are being both bilateral and having cephalization to an animal moving through its environment?
    Bilateral symmetry allows the animal to have directed movement which can help when searching for food or escaping predators. It also allows for quicker and precise response to stimulation since the nervous system is cephalized and much more complex.
  17. How do planarians take in food and pass wastes?
    Through a pharynx, an extendible, muscular tube on the ventral side of the animal
  18. How does the gastrovascular cavity differ from a spongocoel in structure and function?
    • The gastrovascular cavity is for digestion and internal transport, the spongocoel facilitates water circulation.
    • The spongocoel is bigger than the gastrovascular cavity.
  19. Which phylum are hermaphrodites?
  20. What three structures do all mollusks have in common?
    • A muscular head-foot which is a visceral mass
    • A fleshy mantle that secretes
    • A protective (internal or external) shell
  21. What are the three major classes of mollusks?
    • Surface-feeding gastropods (snails)
    • Filter-feeding bivalves (clams)
    • Free-swimming, predatory cephalopods (squids)
  22. What is the mantle?
    • A dorsal fold of tissue that secretes the shell
    • In clams and snails, the shell is external; in squid and octopus, the shell is reduced and internalized
  23. Mantle cavity
    • Contains the gills
    • Water drawn into the mantle cavity is used for gas exchange
    • In squid, water forced out of the mantle cavity can be used for jet propulsion
  24. Adductor muscles
    Two large muscles attached to the shell and used to pull the valves tightly closed in clams
  25. How hass the head-foot evolved in cephalopods
    It has evolved into a separate head and several, sucker-covered tentacles
  26. What are siphons?
    • Clams extensions of the edge of the mantle
    • Water passes into the mantle cavity through the ventral, incurrent siphon and out through the dorsal, excurrent siphon
  27. What does it mean to be serially segmented?
    • The body is composed of repeated similar segments or "metameres"
    • This condition is known as metamerism and is also found in arthropods and chordates
  28. What is coelom?
    • A "second" body cavity that surrounds and is completely separate from the digestive cavity
    • Inside this fluid-filled space the internal organs:
    • a. increase their surface are by bending and coiling (human intestine)
    • b. can fill, empty, and slide past one another, lubricated with coelomic fluid (human lungs)
  29. What are setae?
    Setae are bristles on earthworms that attach to surfaces and prevent backsliding during persisteltic motion
  30. What is parapodia?
    Pairs of fleshy projections along the side of the clamworms body
  31. How might parapodia aid in gas exchange?
    Parapodia have a large surface area and keep fresh water with a high oxygen concentration constantly moving over the respiratory surface.
  32. How might the parapodia aid in locomotion?
    The contraction of the parapodia allow it to move
  33. What is the largest phylum?
  34. What does arthropod mean?
  35. What two unique features do all arthropods have in common?
    An exoskeleton and jointed appendages
  36. What three parts are insects divided into?
    • head, thorax, and abdomen
    • In crustaceans and arachnids, the head and thorax are fused into a cephalothorax
  37. Which body divisions of arthropods still show the remnants of ancestral segmentation?
    The abdomen
  38. How many pairs of walking legs to arthropods have and to what body division are they attached?
    • Insects have 3
    • Crustaceans and arachnids have 4
    • The thorax or cephalothorax
  39. Which arthropods have antennae?
    Insects and crustaceans
  40. How many pairs of antennae do insects have? crustaceans?
    Insects have one and crustaceans have two
  41. What are chelicerae?
    In arachnids, the first pair of appendages that has been modified into fang-like mouth parts
  42. What are pedipalps?
    • In spiders, the second pair of ancestral appendages
    • For manipulating food and, in males, for transferring sperm to the female
  43. Which arthropod has wings?
  44. What do wings enable insects to do?
    • Exploit widely dispersed food sources
    • Escape from predators
    • Disperse into new habitats
  45. Compound eyes
    • Larger, with multiple facets/lenses
    • Compound eyes form images and are especially well adapted for detecting motion
  46. protosome
    first mouth
  47. deuterostome
    second mouth
  48. Water vascular system
    • Unique to Echinoderms
    • The tube feet of the starfish are part of this
    • hydraulic, water fills the tube feet making them rigid enougth to all the starfish to walk
  49. Dermal papulae
    Protrusions of the coelom that serve as sites of gas exchange on starfish
  50. All chordates have:
    • A dorsal, hollow nerve cord
    • A notochord (a stiff rod running under the nerve cord)
    • Pharyngeal ("throat") gill slits
    • Tail
  51. The seven classes of the subphylum, vertebrates (animals with backbones) fall into two major groups:
    • The fishes (lamprey eels, cartilaginous fishes (sharks) and bony fishes
    • The tetrapods (four foot) amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
  52. Tunicates
    • Invertebrates (no backbone)
    • Dorsal, hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal gill slits; tail
  53. Poriferans
  54. Cnidarians
    Jellyfish, hydra
  55. Platyhelminths
  56. Mollusks
    • Gastropods (snails, slugs)
    • Bivalves (clams, oysters)
    • Cephalopods (octopus, squid)
  57. Annelids
    Segmented worms
  58. Arthropods
    • Arachnids (spiders)
    • Crustaceans (crabs, lobsters)
    • Insects
  59. Echinoderms
    • Starfish
    • "spiny skinned"
  60. Chordates
    • Invertebrates (tunicates)
    • Vertebrates (sharks, bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals)
  61. Which phylums have gastrovascular cavities?
    Cnidarias and Platyhelminths
  62. Meiosis is from what to what?
    Diploid spore mother cell to haploid spores
  63. Fertilization is from what to what?
    Haploid gametes (egg and sperm) to diploid zygote
  64. What is mitosis?
    The division of the nucleus
  65. Where does meiosis ONLY occur?
    In spore mother cells
  66. What type of plants are mosses?
    BryophytesThey lack vascular tissues; have on true stems
  67. What types of plants are ferns?
    Seedless, vascular
  68. What do ferns and mosses have in common?
    Flagellated sperm that need to swim through surface water to reach the egg in the female gametangia
  69. fronds
    large, leathery leaves ferns are known for having
  70. rhizome
    the reduced, underground creeping stems that roots grow off of in ferns
  71. sori
    clusters of (spore producing) sporangia on the underside of the fronds of ferns
  72. Which parts of the fern are sporophyte?
    The sporangia, fronds, roots and rhizomes
  73. What are gymnosperms?
    Vascular plants with "naked" seeds (conifers: cone-bearing plants)
  74. What are "naked" seeds?
    Seeds that are not protected inside a fruit
  75. What do gymnosperms and angiosperms have in common?
    reproduction except that the reproductive structures are housed inside cones instead of inside flowers
  76. Where is the sporangia in gymnosperms?
    In the male cones where microspores are produced which develop into small male gametophytes (pollen grains)
  77. What is in the female cones of gymnosperms?
    The female gametophyes, which have been reduced to small clusters of cells that develop into seeds when fertilized by pollen
  78. What does the female gametophyte in gymnosperms consist of?
    • One or more gametangia, each containing an egg cell
    • A mass of haploid tissues from the female gametophyte
  79. Contrast the mode of sperm delivery in ferns with sperm delivery in conifers
    In conifers, regular meiosis takes the pollen grains into the ovule fertilizing and producting a seed. In ferns, it is carried through the anteridium to the archegenium where fertilization takes place
  80. What are angiosperms?
    Flowering plants
  81. Where does reproduction occur in angiosperms?
    In the flowers, where sexual reproduction occurs, in which seeds are formed, and from which fruits develop.
  82. Where is pollen produced in angiosperms?
    Inside the anther of a flower
  83. How does pollen production begin in angiosperms?
    With the specialized cells called microspore mother cells
  84. Where are eggs (female gamete) produced in angiosperms?
    Inside the ovules of the flowers ovary
  85. How does egg production begin in angiosperms?
    With the specialized cells called megaspore mother cells
  86. What is double fertilization?
    • It is in angiosperms
    • It involves two fertilization events, the first triggers development of the embryo and the second provides nutrition for the embryo
  87. What is the difference between pollination and fertilization?
    • Pollination is when pollen is transferred in plants, enables sexual reproduction
    • Fertilization is the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism
  88. What are pericarps?
    The ripened ovary wall
  89. What is vegetative reproduction?
    • When plants reproduce asexually
    • This only requires one parent to produce new plants
    • All the offspring are genetically identical to the parent plant, because only mitosis is involved, not meiosis