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  1. List eight health benefits associated with regular participation in physical activity (for which there is STRONG evidence).
    • Lower risk of:
    • early death
    • atherosclerotic cardiovascular heart disease
    • coronary heart disease
    • stroke
    • high blood pressure
    • adverse blood lipid profile
    • type 2 diabetes
    • metabolic syndrome
    • colon cancer
    • breast cancer
    • Prevention of weight gain
    • Weight loss
    • Improved cardio & muscular fitness
    • Prevetion of falls
    • Reduced depression
    • Better cognitive function (for older adults)
  2. List eight health benefits associated with regular participation in physical activity (for which there is MODERATE to STRONG evidence).
    • Better functional health (for older adults)
    • Reduced abdominal obesity
  3. List eight health benefits associated with regular participation in physical activity (for which there is MODERATE evidence).
    • Lower risk of hip fracture
    • Lower risk of lung cancer
    • Lower risk of endometrial cancer
    • Weight maintenance after weight loss
    • Increased bone density
    • Improved sleep quality
  4. How can interval training improve aerobic performance?
    Interval training can be used to maximize aerobic power, and when done at higher intensity, to increase aerobic endurance and anaerobic power.
  5. List three physiological adaptations that occur to improve exercise performance and state how or why improvement occurs.
    1. Increased maximal blood flow - maximal stroke volume increases, which increases maximal cardiac output.

    2. Increased oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal - Maximal breathing rate increases, along with a larger tidal volume, resulting in high pulmonary ventilations (and ability to remove carbon dioxide at a higher rate), better maintaining appropriate acid/base balance.

    3. Increased maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic power - increase in number of capillaries per muscle fiber, providing richer supply of oxygen & nutrients, removes carbon dioxide & other wastes, allows higher maximal rate of aerobic energy production. Increased fuel storage.
  6. Define energy and its food source.
    Energy - the ability to do work.

    The food source for energy is the sun. The energy is transformed from light energy into a form of chemical energy that your body can use. Plants convert light energy through photosynthesis; humans and animals eat plants and consume the energy.
  7. Define ATP
    ATP - adenosine triphosphate

    ATP is a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions

    The breakdown of ATP provides the only source of energy for muscular contraction. Any energy stored in the body in the form of carbs or fat must first be converted into ATP before it can be used for exercise.
  8. Energy Pathways - Anaerobic pathway

    ATP--CP system/phosphagen system

    1. Fuel source -
    2. Intensity -
    3. Duration -
    4. Three examples of activities that utilize this system:
    • 1. Fuel source - chemical (ATP through breakdown of creatine phosphate (CP))
    • 2. Intensity - High
    • 3. Duration - Limited (no more than 15-20 seconds)
    • 4. Three examples of activities that utilize this system:
    • Sprinting, jumping, throwing, kicking and lifting heavy weights (exercises in which energy is required immediately)
  9. Energy Pathways - Anaerobic pathway

    Lactic acid system

    1. Fuel source -
    2. Intensity -
    3. Duration -
    4. Three examples of activities that utilize this system:
    • 1. Fuel source - glucose (the usable form of carb in the body)
    • 2. Intensity - High
    • 3. Duration - sustained, no longer than a few minutes (45-90 seconds, or 1 to 2 minutes)
    • 4. Three examples of activities that utilize this system:
    • prolonged sprints, 100-200 meters swimming, 1,000-2,000 meters cycling, sustained high-intensity rallies in soccer, hockey, floor routine in gymnastics.
  10. Energy Pathways - Aerobic pathway

    Aerobic system

    1. Fuel source -

    2. Intensity -

    3. Duration -

    4. Three examples of activities that utilize this system:
    1. Fuel source - carbs, fats and proteins

    2. Intensity - low to moderate

    3. Duration - long duration

    • 4. Three examples of activities that utilize this system:
    • sleeping, resting, sitting, walking
  11. Define: aerobic
    with oxygen, or the presence of oxygen
  12. Define: anaerobic
    requiring no oxygen; usually short-spurt, high-energy activities
  13. Define: steady state
    After the first 3-4 minutes of exercise, oxygen update has reached an adequate level to meet the ocygen demand of the tissues; heart rate, cardiac output, and pulmonary ventilation have attained fairly constant levels
  14. Define: excess post-oxygen consumption (EPOC)
    aka oxygen debt. Oxygen uptake remains elevated above resting levels for several minutes during exercise recovery.
  15. Define: oxygen deficit
    A period in which the level of oxygen consumption is below what is necessary to supply appropriate ATP production required of any exercise.
  16. Define: anaerobic threshold
    The point at which the body can no longer meet its dmand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism is accelerated
  17. Define: aerobic capacity
    The ability of the body to remove oxygen from the air and transfer it through the lungs and blood to the working muscles; related to cardiorespiratory endurance.
  18. Define: lactic acid
    The by-product of anaerobic metabolism of glucose or glycogen in muscle.
  19. Define: stroke volume
    The volume of blood ejected by each ventricle of the heart during a single systole.
  20. Define: cardiac output
    The volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute.
  21. Define: venous return
    The "pumping action" of the muscles in the extremities and respiratory system along with venoconstriction to move oxygen-poor blood back to the heart.
  22. Define: blood pooling
    A condition caused by creasing vigorous exercise too abruptly so that blood remains in the extremities and may not be delivered quickly enough to the heart and brain.
  23. Define: vital capacity
    The greatest volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after the deepest inspiration
  24. Define: valsalva manuever
    A dangerous condition that can occur if an individual holds his or her breath, causing the glottis to close and stomach muscles to contract, forming an unequal pressure in the chest cavity, reduced blood flow to the heart, and insufficient oxygen supply to the brain. Dizziness, temporary loss of consciousness may occur.
  25. Define: blood pressure norms
    Resting blood pressure average of a healthy person = around 120/80

    140/90 or higher is considered to be high blood pressure, or hypertension
  26. Define: joint
  27. Define: ligament
    Bands or sheet-like fibrous tissues that connect bone to bone and reinforce joints from dislocation; they are nonelastic and have limited range of motion.
  28. Define: tendon
    Band of dense fibrous tissue forming the termination of a muscle and attaching muscle to bone with a minimum of elasticity
  29. Define: cartilage
    White, semi-opaque fibrous connective tissue; cushions and prevents wear on articular surfaces
  30. Describe: anterior/posterior
    Anterior - to the front

    Posterior - to the back or behind
  31. Describe: medial/lateral
    medial - toward the midline of the body

    lateral - side-to-side, away from the midline of the body
  32. Describe: supine/prone
    supine - lying face up

    prone - lying face down
  33. Describe: superior/inferior
    superior - above or the upper half of the body

    inferior - below or the lower half of the body
  34. Describe: unilateral/bilateral
    unilateral - affects one side of the body

    bilateral - affects both sides of the body equally
  35. Describe: horizontal (transverse) anatomical plane
    divide the body horizontally, into the top and bottom halfs
  36. Describe: sagittal anatomical plane
    Divides the body vertically, into left and right sides
  37. Describe: frontal anatomical plane
    Divides the body vertically, into front and back halves
Card Set
Content of AFAA Section 1 - Essentials of Exercise, covering chapter 3-7 and appendix C of the textbook.
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