Nervous System

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Anonymous
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54148
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Nervous System
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2010-12-07 19:01:21
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  1. neuron
    the basic units of the nervous system
  2. nerve impulse
    when neurons transmit information in the form of electrochemical charges to other neurons or cells
  3. cell body
    the major biosynthetic center of a neuron that contains a spherical nucleus and the normal organelles
  4. dendrites
    branching extensions of a neuron that receive electrochemical measurements
  5. axon
    neuron process that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body
  6. axolemma
    plasma membrane of an axon
  7. axonal hillock
    cone-shaped area of a cell body that attaches to the axon
  8. axonal terminal
    knob-like distal endings of the terminal branches
  9. schwann cell
    type of supporting cell in the PNS that forms myelin sheaths around the axons
  10. myelin sheath
    fatty insulating sheath that surrounds the axon
  11. neurilemma
    surrounds the myelin sheath
  12. nodes of ranvier
    narrow gaps in the myelin sheath between schwann cells
  13. nissil bodies
    very well-developed rough ER
  14. sensory receptors
    monitor external environment factors such as light and sound and the body's internal environment such as temperature and oxygen
  15. motor functions
    use peripheral neurons to carry impulses from the CNS to effectors
  16. integrative functions
    collect sensory information and make decisions that motor neurons carry out
  17. neuroglial cells
    help support the nervous system, they make up half the mass of the brain
  18. microglial cells
    support neurons and phagocytize bacterial cells and cellular debris in the CNS
  19. Oligodendricytes
    occur in rows along the nerve fibers and they provide insulating layers of myelin around axons within the brain and spinal cord
  20. ependymal cells
    from a membrane that covers specialized brain parts and forms the inner linings that enclose spaces within the CNS
  21. astrocytes
    found between neurons and blood vessels in the CNS; support and join neurons to blood
  22. satellite cells
    found in the PNS; surround neuron cell bodies for protection
  23. Step #1 [Depolarization]
    Arrival of the depolarization wave (nerve impulse) results in the opening of calcium gates and influx of calcium ions into the axon terminal
  24. Step #2 [Depolarization]
    Calcium ions promote fusion of synaptic vessels with the presynaptic membrane and exocytosis of the nuerotransmitter
  25. Step #3 [Depolarization]
    The neurotransmitter diffuses across synaptic cleft and attaches to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
  26. Step #4 [Depolarization]
    Binding of neurotransmitter causes ion channels to open, which results in voltage changes in the postsynaptic membrane...because sodium ions are entering the next neuron
  27. Step #5 [Depolarization]
    Events are short-lived because the neurotransmitter is quickly destroyed by enzymes or taken back up into the presynaptic terminal, which closes ion channels
  28. neurotransmitters
    chemicals found inside vesicles that cause a muscle to contract
  29. acetylcholine
    controls skeletal muscle actions
  30. norepinephrine
    creates a good feeling
  31. serotonin
    concerned with regulation of body temperature, sleep, consciousness and emotions
  32. endorphins
    brain's natural morphine
  33. dopamine
    low levels in Parkinson's Disease (creates sense of well-being)
  34. RIGHT Cerebrum
    orientation of body in space, understanding and interpreting musical patterns, nonverbal visual experiences, emotional and intuitive thinking, language related activities
  35. LEFT Cerebrum
    speech, writing, reading, analytical and and computation skills
  36. frontal lobe
    controls concentrating, planning, complex problem solving, judging consequences of behavior, motor functions, coordinates the complex muscular actions of the mouth, tongue and larynx to allow speech
  37. parietal lobe
    help in understanding speech and choosing words to express thoughts and feelings
  38. temporal lobe
    interpret complex sensory experiences, also provide memory of visual scenes, music and other complex sensory patterns
  39. occipital lobe
    important in analyzing patterns and combining visual images with other sensory experiences
  40. midbrain
    contains centers for certain visual and auditory refexes
  41. pons
    relays impulses to and from the medulla and the cerebrum; also transmits impulses from the cerbellum to centers within the cerebellum
  42. medulla oblongota
    helps alter the heart rate, contains a vasomotor center that sends impulses to smooth muscles in the walls of certain blood vessels causing them to contract or dilate and it also contains a respiratory center that regulates the rate, rhythm and depth of breathing
  43. cerebellum
    contains a reflex center for integrating sensory information concerning the position of body parts and for coordinating complex skeletal muscle movements, helps maintain posture
  44. thalamus
    central relay station for sensory impulses from the various parts of the body and sends and sends them to the cerebral cortex. allows awareness of pain, touch, temperature
  45. hypothalamus
    helps maintain homeostasis by regulating heart rate, blood press., blood temp., water and electrolyte balance, control of hunger weight, also controls glandular secretions in the stomach and intestines
  46. WHITE Matter
    myelinated axons appear white; pass messages through areas of gray matter
  47. GRAY Matter
    unmyelinated axons and cell bodies; route sensory or motor stimuli to CNS; sensory perceptions, emotions, speech and hearing
  48. Central Nervous System
    • Brain and spinal cord
    • Integrative and control centers
  49. Peripheral Nervous System
    • Cranial nerves and spinal nerves
    • Communication lines between CNS and rest of the body
  50. Sensory Division
    • Somatic and visceral sensory nerve fibers
    • Conducts impulses from receptors to CNS
  51. Motor Division
    • Motor nerve fibers
    • Conducts impulses from CNS to effectors
  52. Autonomic Nervous System
    • Involuntary
    • Conducts impulses from CNS to cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands
  53. Somatic Nervous System
    • voluntary
    • conducts impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles
  54. Sympathetic Division
    Mobilizes body systems during emergency situations
  55. Parasympathetic Division
    • Conserves energy
    • Promotes nonemergency functions

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