chapter11.txt

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vkellogg
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chapter11.txt
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2010-12-07 19:09:12
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Chapter 11 photosynthesis
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  1. Photosynthesis
    Method of converting sun energy into chemical energy usable by cells
  2. Autotrophs
    self feeders, capable of making their own food
  3. Photoautotroph's
    use sun energy e.g. plants photosynthesis - makes organic compounds (glucose) from light
  4. Chemoautotroph:
    use chemical energy e.g. bacteria that uses sulfide or methane.
  5. Chemosynthesis:
    makes organic compounds from chemical energy contained in sulfide or methane
  6. Photosynthesis takes place in specialized structures inside plant cells called?
    chloroplasts.
  7. Light absorbing pigment molecules e.g.
    chlorophyll
  8. Pigment
    substace able to absorb light
  9. Light energy -> electromagnetic energy ->
    photons (may or may not contain matter)
  10. Photosynthesis
    explains as if light behaves as a photon
  11. Light has a double nature
    (photon & electromagnetic wave)
  12. Photosynthesis equation
    6CO2 + 12 H2O + light energy ? C6H12O6 + 6O2+ 6H2O
  13. The carbohydrate made is
    glucose
  14. Water appears on both sides because ___ H2O molecules are required and ___ new H2O molecules are made
    12, 6
  15. Water is split as a source of electrons from hydrogen atoms releasing ___ as a byproduct
    O2
  16. Electrons increase potential energy when moved from water to sugar therefore ______ is required
    energy
  17. Plants contain a lot of
    salt and sugar
  18. Light-dependent Reactions
    Overview: light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules

    this light energy excretes electrons and boosts them to a higher energy level.

    They are trapped by electron acceptor molecules that a poised at the start of a neighboring transport system.

    The electrons fal to a lower energy state, releasing energy that is harnessed to make ATP.
  19. Carbon fixation is fixing CO2, making
    a molecule of glucose.
  20. Need __CO2 for one glucose
    6
  21. Energy Shuttling - Recall ATP: cellular energy-nucleotide based molecule with 3 phosphate groups bonded to it, when removing the third phosphate group, lots of energy is
    liberated = superb molecule for shutting energy around with in cells.
  22. Other energy shuttles-coenzymes (nucleotide based molecules): move electrons and protons around within the cell
    NADP+, NADPH NAD+, NADP FAD, FADH2
  23. Light-dependent Reactions - Photosystem:
    light capturing unit, contains chlorophyll, the light capturing pigment
  24. Electron transport system:
    sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons, energy released to make ATP
  25. Electrons in chlorophyll must be replaced so that cycle may continue - these electrons come from _______ _______ Oxygen is liberated from the light reactions
    water molecules,
  26. Light reactions yield ____ and ____ used to fuel the reactions of the Calvin cycle (light independent or dark reactions)
    NADPH and ATP
  27. Calvin Cycle (light independent or dark reactions)
    ATP and NADPH generated in light reactions used to fuel the reactions which take CO2 and break it apart, then reassemble the carbons into glucose.Called?
    • carbon fixation: taking carbon from an inorganic molecule (atmospheric CO2) and making an organic molecule out of it (glucose)
    • Simplified version of how carbon and energy enter the food chain
  28. Light-dependent reactions, (photophosphorylation) - Generates ATP and NADPH and Occurs where?
    in the Thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast
  29. Light-independent (Calvin cyclee) Uses ATP and electron from the light reactions. Occurs where?
    outside the Thylakoid membrane.
  30. Sunlight is a mixture of many wavelengths, some living organisms have evolved _____ that absorb certain wavelengths of light and reflect them.
    pigments
  31. Light made of particles called
    photons.
  32. Other pigments help absorb
    wavelength
  33. Visible light is only a small portion of the
    electromagnetic spectrum.
  34. Visible light ranges from about
    390 nm to about 760 nm.
  35. To our eyes 400nm light appears
    violet.
  36. 500nm appears
    blue green
  37. 600nm appears
    orange red
  38. Remember what we see is light
    REFLECTED off objects.
  39. Because the earths atmosphere absorbs more infrared and ultraviolet light. Most of the light reaches the earths surface is
    visible light.
  40. The visible light is then used in photosynthesis to build
    complex molecules.
  41. Mechanisms of photosyntheses - Substances needed:
    • Photons - sunlight,
    • CO2 - atmosphere,
    • H2O - soil, rain,
    • Chlorophyll - chloroplasts
  42. Light-dependent reactions occur in two steps:
    • 1.Conversion of solar enegrgy (photons) to chemical energy (high energy ATP) phosphorylation
    • 2. ATP is used to join CO2 and H2O --> PGAL (trios) --> Glucose
  43. Light Dependant Reactions Are carried out by molecules in the
    thylakoid membranes.
  44. Convert light energy to the chemical energy which are
    ATP and NADPH
  45. Photosystem I
    absorbs light at 700nm and is called P700.
  46. Split H2O and release
    O2 atmosphere.
  47. Photosystem II
    absorbs light at 680nm and is called P680
  48. Antenna pigments
    absorb photons and pass the energy to nearby chlorophyll molecules or accessory igments by resonance energy transfer
  49. Purpose of light reaction?
    To make ATP & NADPH
  50. __ molecules of CO2 are needed..
    6... 6 carbons in glucose
  51. Calvin cycle reactions Occur
    only after the light-dependent reactions are completed.
  52. Calvin cycle reactions May occur in ____ or _____ but does NOT require light.
    light or dark
  53. Calvin cycle Occur in the _____ of the chloroplasts.
    Stroma
  54. Calvin cycle Transforms CO2 into sugar in ____ stages.
    Three
  55. Calvin cycle Return what to the lght reaction?
    ADP, inorganic phosphate, and NADP+ to the light reaction.
  56. Calvin cycle Use ATP and NADPH to convert CO2 to the sugar ___.
    G3P
  57. How many CO2 molecules does a chloroplast need to make one molecule of glucose?
    6molecules of CO2
  58. As the cycle turns 6 times it produces 12 molecules of 3-carbon GP3.Of these two form a molecule of glucose and the remaining ten regenerate molecules of
    ribulose bisphosphate
  59. Take C from CO2 how many molecules of CO2
    need 3 molecules of CO2.. 2 molecules of trios
  60. How man ATP and NADPH are needed?
    9ATP & 6NADPH are needed
  61. Rubisco fixes CO2 which is the only enzyme that can take
    CO2 from atmosphere.
  62. Part 1. Capturing the Carbon - CO2 is added to a five-carbon compound called ribulose bisphosphate, which then splits into two three-carbon molecules. The enzyme that catalyzes this reaction is called
    Rubisco.
  63. Part 2. Making sugar - the three-carbon molecules changes into a true
    three-carbon sugar (GP3).
  64. Part 3. Regenerating ribulose biphosphate - more ribulose biphosphate is made for part 1 and the cycle
    continues.

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