Water appears on both sides because ___ H2O molecules are required and ___ new H2O molecules are made
Water is split as a source of electrons from hydrogen atoms releasing ___ as a byproduct
Electrons increase potential energy when moved from water to sugar therefore ______ is required
Plants contain a lot of
salt and sugar
Overview: light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules
this light energy excretes electrons and boosts them to a higher energy level.
They are trapped by electron acceptor molecules that a poised at the start of a neighboring transport system.
The electrons fal to a lower energy state, releasing energy that is harnessed to make ATP.
Carbon fixation is fixing CO2, making
a molecule of glucose.
Need __CO2 for one glucose
Energy Shuttling - Recall ATP: cellular energy-nucleotide based molecule with 3 phosphate groups bonded to it, when removing the third phosphate group, lots of energy is
liberated = superb molecule for shutting energy around with in cells.
Other energy shuttles-coenzymes (nucleotide based molecules): move electrons and protons around within the cell
NADP+, NADPH NAD+, NADP FAD, FADH2
Light-dependent Reactions - Photosystem:
light capturing unit, contains chlorophyll, the light capturing pigment
Electron transport system:
sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons, energy released to make ATP
Electrons in chlorophyll must be replaced so that cycle may continue - these electrons come from _______ _______ Oxygen is liberated from the light reactions
Light reactions yield ____ and ____ used to fuel the reactions of the Calvin cycle (light independent or dark reactions)
NADPH and ATP
Calvin Cycle (light independent or dark reactions)
ATP and NADPH generated in light reactions used to fuel the reactions which take CO2 and break it apart, then reassemble the carbons into glucose.Called?
carbon fixation: taking carbon from an inorganic molecule (atmospheric CO2) and making an organic molecule out of it (glucose)
Simplified version of how carbon and energy enter the food chain
Light-dependent reactions, (photophosphorylation) - Generates ATP and NADPH and Occurs where?
in the Thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast
Light-independent (Calvin cyclee) Uses ATP and electron from the light reactions. Occurs where?
outside the Thylakoid membrane.
Sunlight is a mixture of many wavelengths, some living organisms have evolved _____ that absorb certain wavelengths of light and reflect them.
Light made of particles called
Other pigments help absorb
Visible light is only a small portion of the
Visible light ranges from about
390 nm to about 760 nm.
To our eyes 400nm light appears
Remember what we see is light
REFLECTED off objects.
Because the earths atmosphere absorbs more infrared and ultraviolet light. Most of the light reaches the earths surface is
The visible light is then used in photosynthesis to build
Mechanisms of photosyntheses - Substances needed:
Photons - sunlight,
CO2 - atmosphere,
H2O - soil, rain,
Chlorophyll - chloroplasts
Light-dependent reactions occur in two steps:
1.Conversion of solar enegrgy (photons) to chemical energy (high energy ATP) phosphorylation
2. ATP is used to join CO2 and H2O --> PGAL (trios) --> Glucose
Light Dependant Reactions Are carried out by molecules in the
Convert light energy to the chemical energy which are
ATP and NADPH
absorbs light at 700nm and is called P700.
Split H2O and release
absorbs light at 680nm and is called P680
absorb photons and pass the energy to nearby chlorophyll molecules or accessory igments by resonance energy transfer
Purpose of light reaction?
To make ATP & NADPH
__ molecules of CO2 are needed..
6... 6 carbons in glucose
Calvin cycle reactions Occur
only after the light-dependent reactions are completed.
Calvin cycle reactions May occur in ____ or _____ but does NOT require light.
light or dark
Calvin cycle Occur in the _____ of the chloroplasts.
Calvin cycle Transforms CO2 into sugar in ____ stages.
Calvin cycle Return what to the lght reaction?
ADP, inorganic phosphate, and NADP+ to the light reaction.
Calvin cycle Use ATP and NADPH to convert CO2 to the sugar ___.
How many CO2 molecules does a chloroplast need to make one molecule of glucose?
6molecules of CO2
As the cycle turns 6 times it produces 12 molecules of 3-carbon GP3.Of these two form a molecule of glucose and the remaining ten regenerate molecules of
Take C from CO2 how many molecules of CO2
need 3 molecules of CO2.. 2 molecules of trios
How man ATP and NADPH are needed?
9ATP & 6NADPH are needed
Rubisco fixes CO2 which is the only enzyme that can take
CO2 from atmosphere.
Part 1. Capturing the Carbon - CO2 is added to a five-carbon compound called ribulose bisphosphate, which then splits into two three-carbon molecules. The enzyme that catalyzes this reaction is called
Part 2. Making sugar - the three-carbon molecules changes into a true
three-carbon sugar (GP3).
Part 3. Regenerating ribulose biphosphate - more ribulose biphosphate is made for part 1 and the cycle